Showing posts with label IDEALISM. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IDEALISM. Show all posts


INTRODUCTION
Education and philosophy are closely inter-related. Philosophy is love of knowledge and education is acquisition of knowledge. Philosophy is the corner stone of the foundation of education. Education is practical activity of philosophical thought. Without philosophy, education would be a blind effort and without education, philosophy would be crippled. Philosophy answers thousands of questions pertaining to the whole field of education.
            Philosophy of education can refer to either the academic field of applied philosophy or to one of any educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education, and/or which examine the definition, goals and meaning of education.“The art of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy’’ Fichte. “Education is the Dynamic side of philosophy’’ James Rose.
Idealism is the oldest philosophical thought. Human life has two dimensions- Spiritual and Material. When the emphasis is on the spiritual life, it is called Idealism. The word idealism is derived from two distinct sources- the idea and the ideal. Idea means true and testified knowledge. The word ideal stands for the perfected form of an idea or ideas. An idealist does not have considerations for material values of life. A thinker who idolizes ‘Mind and Self’ is an idealist. Protagonists of idealism are- Socrates, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Burkley, Kant, Fitche, Schelling, Hegel, Green, Gentile (the Western); From Vedas and Upanishads to Aurobindo Gosh (the Eastern philosophers).

DEFINITION OF IDEALISM
            To make the meaning of Idealism more clear give below some important definitions as given by eminent scholars-
i.                    “Idealism holds that ultimate reality is spiritualism.’’ D. M. Dutta
ii.                 “Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality of  is of a mental character’’  J. S. Ross
iii.                FUNDAMETAL PRINCIPLES OF IDEALISM
            The fundamental principles of idealism are as under-TWO FORMS OF THE WHOLE WORLD
             Idealism believes in two forms of the world-(1).Spiritual world (2).Material world.
Idealists give more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth where as the material world is transitory and mortal. To know the reality of the spiritual world is to know the reality of mind and soul. It is a sort of self- realization – the main aim of human life. According to Horne- “Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space and time of an eternal and spiritual reality.”
2.1            IDEAS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN OBJECTS
            According to Idealists, knowledge of mind and soul can be obtained through ideas only. Hence, they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material or later. In the ideas are realities and ultimate entities of the material world. In the words of Plato-“Ideas are of the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essences or archetypes which give form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging.”
IMPORTANCE OF MAN OVER NATURE
            To Idealists, man is more important than material nature. It is because man can think and experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are, but the moulds and transforms the environment for his on good and welfare of the society. In short, he creates his own world of virtue and his creativity achieves higher and higher levels of art in many areas. The following words speak this truth-“The spiritual and cultural environment of man’s   own making, it is a product of man’s creative activity.” – R. R. Rusk
FAITH IN SPIRITUAL VALUES
            According to Idealists, the prime aim of life is to achieve spiritual values. They are- Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these values is the realization of God. In the pursuit of these absolute values man rises higher and higher in the moral plane till he attains Divinity. For the achievement of these spiritual values of all the capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are – knowing, feeling and willing. By the fullest use of these capacities man can achieve the highest spiritual values and thus realize his true and ultimate self. J.S. Ross also opines-“Goodness, truth and beauty are seen to be absolutes each existing in its own right and entirely desirable in it.”
IMPORTANTS OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
            Idealists give much importance to the Self of the individual. Hence, they insist upon the fullest development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality means achievement of Perfection. Plato rightly speak that each individual has an ideal Self. He tries to develop that ideal Self more and more. This is self- realization in the true sense of the term. It may be noted that self -realization means knowledge of the self or soul. The self -realization can only be achieved in society. In short, Idealism believes in the welfare of whole human community.
FULL SUPPORT TO THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY IN  DIVERSITY
            Idealists give full support to the principle of Unity in Diversity. This underlying divine force maintains the existence and working of all entities. Idealists call this power as God, the Supreme Force which is omnipotent and omnipresent. Realization of this Supreme force in one’s Self is to attain divinity and fullest development of personality which may be called spiritual fulfillment. 
IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION 
 The following are the aims of education according to the philosophy of Idealism.
3.1            SELF REALIZATION OR EXHALTATION OF PERSONALITY
            According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of God. Hence, the advocates of Idealism lay great stress on the exhalation of human personality. By exhalation of human personality, they mean self-realization. Self-realization involves full knowledge of the self. Hence, the first aim of education according to Idealism is to develop the ‘Self’ of the individual higher and higher till self-realization is achieved.
3.2            TO ENSURE SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT
            Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Thus, according to them, the second aim of education is to develop the child mentally, morally and above all spiritually. Thus, the teacher should so organize education as to develop the child spiritually.
3.3             TO CULTIVATE TRUTH, BEAUTY AND GOODNESS
            Idealists assert that to develop spiritual values in the individuals, pursuit of highest ideals namely- Truth, Beauty and Goodness should be encouraged more and more. The more an individual realizes these ideals, the more spiritually developed he will become. Hence, education should strive its utmost in developing the child morally and spiritually so that he achieves self-realization.
CONSERVATION, PROMOTION AND TRANSMISSION OF   CULTURAL HERITAGE
            The cultural heritage is of immense worth and value. It belongs to whole humanity and it is the purpose of education to preserve, deserve, develop and transmit it. It is for education to acquaint the child with cultural heritage so that he conserves, promotes and transmits it to the rising generation. This is done through the process of self-estrangement.
CONVERTION OF INBORN NATURE INTO SPIRITUAL NATURE
            Idealists hold the view that the inborn instincts and inherent tendencies of the child should be sublimated into spiritual qualities and values. This is real development of the individuality. Only then, it will be possible for the individual to attain fullest and highest development of personality.
 PREPARATION FOR HOLY LIFE
            In the words of Frobel “the object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life”. This may be possible by developing courtesy i.e. politeness good breeding, urbanity, docrum, modesty, respect for public opinion, liberty etc; Justice i.e. honesty, speaking truth, integrity, uprightness etc; respect for low.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE AND RATIONALITY
            Adams has defined education from the point of view of an Idealist. According to him there is a purpose in all objects and natural phenomena. He has further said that the world is planned and well-organized. There are set principles working in this creation. An Idealist always tries to discover and understand this principle so that on the basis of moral elements the world remains organized.
EDUCATION TO THE LEVEL OF CAPACITY
            The individual aim of education has been clearly expressed by Sir Pery Nunn; “Nothing good enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women, and the educational practice must be shaped to accord with the truth’’.
‘Education’, therefore must serve for everyone “the conditions under which individuality is most completely developed’’.
 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM
            While structuring curriculum, Idealists give more importance to thoughts, feelings, ideals and values than to the child and his activities. They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. These experiences can be imbibed by two ways namely- (1) from the physical environment and (2) from contacts with other fellowmen. In this way, in an Idealistic curriculum, both the scientific subjects as well as the humanities are included. In the following discussion we are throwing light on the ideas of Plato, Herbart, Nunn and Ross about curriculum.
A.                 PLATO
            Plato was staunch idealist. According to him, the aim of life is to realize God which is possible only by pursuing high ideals namely Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These high ideals can be attained by three types of activities namely intellectual, aesthetic and moral.
B.                 HERBART
            According to Herbart the Idealistic aim of education is the promotion of moral values. Hence, he gave prime importance to subjects like Literature, History, Art, Music, Poetry, together with other Humanities and secondary place to scientific subjects.
C.                  NUNN
            Views of Nunn about curriculum are also based on the philosophy of Idealism. According to him, it is the function of schools to promote and maintain morality and the historical tradition to preserve and develop its achievements more and more. This is possible only when the school includes those activities and subjects in its curriculum which reflect the achievements of human culture and civilization. Hence, Nunn emphatically advocates the inclusion in the curriculum, those attainments which reflect the highest creations of human mind and those activities which involve the noblest expressions of human ingenuity and creative intelligence. Nunn has divided these activities into two categories: (1) Physical, Social, Moral and Religious and (2) Literary and Aesthetic.
D.                 ROSS
            He holds the view that one can develop spiritually when he is developed physically and these are both important for physical skill and health education. He wanted to teach physical exercise, intellectual exercise with the help of literature, language, history, geography, science and mathematics along with ethics for moral development. For spiritual development he wanted aesthetics to be taught with fine arts and religion with religion and metaphysics.
 IDEALISM AND TEACHER
            In the realm of Idealism, the role of teacher is very important and glorious. Idealistic philosophy believes that this planned creation has two parts-(1) The teacher and (2) The child as student. Both aims at one target only- The development of the individual child in a spiritual way. The realization of this great aim is possible only through education and the essential agent, the teacher. In reality an Idealist teacher is imbued fully with high degree of self-knowledge, self-dynamism and essential qualities of spiritualism. By his own model of life, he tries to shape the individuality of the child to a life of purity, virtue and great achievements. He creates a wholesome conducive atmosphere by his own activities and planned experiences for the child. He guides the child with such genuine love, affection and sympathy that he attains his full mental and spiritual development. J. S. Ross aptly remarks- “The Naturalist may be content with the brains, but the Idealist wants fine roses. So the educator by his efforts assists the educand, who is developing according to the laws of his nature to attain levels that would otherwise be denied to him.’’
 IDELISM AND TEACHING METHODS                                                          
            The aims of Idealism are concrete and definite. But there is no specific method for achieving them. Socrates used Question-Answer method Plato emphasize Discourse Method and Aristotle advocated Inductive-Deductive method. In the works of Hegel, Logical Measuring is evident.
Descrates employed the device of   Simple to Complex. Pestalozzi laid stress on education of the physical organs and allied activities. Herbart advocated Instruction Method. Frobel insisted upon Play – way Method. Not only this, other Idealists advocated many more methods namely – Discussion, Lecture, Talk in groups. In this way, according to Idealists no specific method is to be adhered to. In their opinion any and every method may be employed to realize the ideals set and determined before. Butler has rightly remarked – “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods, not devotees of someone method”. 
IDEALISM AND DISCIPLINE
            Discipline is to be inculcated through morals for which the following needs to be remembered.
·         Moral education is training in habits and not an inculcation of mere theoretical views.
·         A mechanical virtue, in which a youth exercise a minimum moral choice and obeys an external rule prescribed for him, is to be inculcated. In this lowest species of moral discipline the youth learns self denial and self control. There are to be inculcated as an elementary base of moral code of discipline.
Lack of discipline in a school scope the moral character of the pupil. It allows him to work merely as he pleases, and he never can reinforce his feeble will by regularity, punctuality and sympathetic industry. He grows up in such a way that neither he does unreasonable and nor allows others to do so.
Too strict discipline undermines moral character by emphasizing too much the mechanical duties and especially the phase of obedience to authority, and it leaves the pupil in the state of perennial minority. He does not assimilate the law of duty and makes it his own. The law does not touch his heart but is on his lips only. He fears it but not love it. The tyrant teacher produces hypocrisy and deceit in his pupils. Even when there is simple implicit obedience in the place of fraud, there is no independent character development to take correct decision.
The best help that one can give to his follows is that which enables him to help them. The best school is that which enables the teachers to help themselves. The best instruction is morality makes the pupil a law up to himself.
IDEALISM AND SCHOOL
            School is a place where the capacities of logical thinking, reasoning and evaluating of the child are progressively sublimated and developed by teachers and the school environment into desirable channels so that high spiritual ideals and values are gained. Such noble mission, according to Idealism may be achieved through proper guidance of teacher given in school. Hence, Idealists considered school and its impressionistic environment as greatly essential
EVALUATION OF IDEALISM
            Proper evaluation of Idealism is possible only when one reviews its merits and demerits in greater detail.
DEMERITS OF IDEALISM
            The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine. It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world. It is concerned with the ultimate end of life. It avoids the real problem day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals capable to solve the problems to confront them from time to time and are able to lead happy and contented life. Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily. It emphasizes upon the achievement of immortal VALUES NAMELY, Truth, Beauty and goodness. These values are not absolute. Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.  Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern education, these methods are given little importance. In idealistic education humanities are given greater importance for the spiritual development of the child, while the present age of science lays great stress upon scientific subjects in the curriculum.
MERITS OF IDEALISM
            In the realm of aims of education, Idealism has made signal contribution. It is only this philosophy wherein a detailed exposition of aims has been emphasized. Idealistic education emphasizes the inculcation of highest values namely, Truth, Beauty and Goodness. This will lead to the development of a moral character of the child. It aims at self – realization of all individuals by one’s own efforts. Hence, it promotes universal education. In the process of idealistic education, the teacher assigned a very important role. The teacher influences the child by his high ideals of life and by his sympathetic encouraging behavior. This achieves the fullest development of child’s personality. Idealism respects the individuality of the child and tries to stimulate his creative energies. Thus, Idealism has influenced other philosophies as well. Idealism emphasizes the principle of self-discipline. This principle leads to the development of the ‘Self’ of an individual. Because of the Idealistic philosophy and education, the school has grown into an important social organization. 
            The above discussion clearly shows that Idealism has merits as well as demerit. In the present world of today which is full of stresses, strains, conflicts, envies and material struggles, the need of idealistic education is greatly essential for peaceful living of human beings devoted to social good and national welfare.  
CONCLUSION
            Idealism is basically a philosophy of life and it has exercised, like all philosophies of life, a general rather than a specific influence on education. In philosophy it has taken many forms but all of them agree to the view that the universe is an expression of intelligence and will; that there are certain absolute and eternal truths of life; that the ultimate reality is in the nature of mind rather than in the nature of mater. The latter is perishable and changing; it is an external manifestation of a reality which is not affected by the phenomenon of change. Through the whole of the universe is running a spirit which along is a reality, and knowledge of and reconciliation with that spirit of the individual’s soul is real knowledge. That is the real truth. Appreciation of that truth in its various forms is real art- a thing of real beauty. Conformity of the human will with the moral administration of the universe is real goodness. The difference between idealism and materialism is fundamental-whereas idealism regards mind as the sole explainer of reality, materialism regards that as a phenomenon of matter.
            Idealism lays emphasis on the study of all subjects but stresses the importance of literature, ethics and religion which are recognized to that degree by other philosophies. The teacher has a very important role in education for it is he who leads the individual from darkness into light and who helps him to exalt his personality. As a philosophy idealism with its old form has been sometimes dubbed as rigid and conservative but the modern idealistic outlook is broader and the world is fast realizing how a rejection of the eternal values of life is creating a vacuum into which have crept in so many evils and which may be ultimately fatal to the whole civilization. In India idealism in the form of spiritualism was developed very early as the sole philosophy of life and throughout the ages the same philosophy has kept inspiring the Indian mind and evoking a reverence for it.

IMPLICATION OF IDEALISM IN MODERN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM



INTRODUCTION
Education and philosophy are closely inter-related. Philosophy is love of knowledge and education is acquisition of knowledge. Philosophy is the corner stone of the foundation of education. Education is practical activity of philosophical thought. Without philosophy, education would be a blind effort and without education, philosophy would be crippled. Philosophy answers thousands of questions pertaining to the whole field of education.
            Philosophy of education can refer to either the academic field of applied philosophy or to one of any educational philosophies that promote a specific type or vision of education, and/or which examine the definition, goals and meaning of education.“The art of education will never attain complete clearness without philosophy’’ Fichte. “Education is the Dynamic side of philosophy’’ James Rose.
Idealism is the oldest philosophical thought. Human life has two dimensions- Spiritual and Material. When the emphasis is on the spiritual life, it is called Idealism. The word idealism is derived from two distinct sources- the idea and the ideal. Idea means true and testified knowledge. The word ideal stands for the perfected form of an idea or ideas. An idealist does not have considerations for material values of life. A thinker who idolizes ‘Mind and Self’ is an idealist. Protagonists of idealism are- Socrates, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Burkley, Kant, Fitche, Schelling, Hegel, Green, Gentile (the Western); From Vedas and Upanishads to Aurobindo Gosh (the Eastern philosophers).

DEFINITION OF IDEALISM
            To make the meaning of Idealism more clear give below some important definitions as given by eminent scholars-
i.                    “Idealism holds that ultimate reality is spiritualism.’’ D. M. Dutta
ii.                 “Idealistic philosophy takes many and varied forms, but the postulate underlying all this is that mind or spirit is the essential world stuff, that the true reality of  is of a mental character’’  J. S. Ross
iii.                FUNDAMETAL PRINCIPLES OF IDEALISM
            The fundamental principles of idealism are as under-TWO FORMS OF THE WHOLE WORLD
             Idealism believes in two forms of the world-(1).Spiritual world (2).Material world.
Idealists give more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth where as the material world is transitory and mortal. To know the reality of the spiritual world is to know the reality of mind and soul. It is a sort of self- realization – the main aim of human life. According to Horne- “Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space and time of an eternal and spiritual reality.”
2.1            IDEAS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN OBJECTS
            According to Idealists, knowledge of mind and soul can be obtained through ideas only. Hence, they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material or later. In the ideas are realities and ultimate entities of the material world. In the words of Plato-“Ideas are of the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essences or archetypes which give form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging.”
IMPORTANCE OF MAN OVER NATURE
            To Idealists, man is more important than material nature. It is because man can think and experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are, but the moulds and transforms the environment for his on good and welfare of the society. In short, he creates his own world of virtue and his creativity achieves higher and higher levels of art in many areas. The following words speak this truth-“The spiritual and cultural environment of man’s   own making, it is a product of man’s creative activity.” – R. R. Rusk
FAITH IN SPIRITUAL VALUES
            According to Idealists, the prime aim of life is to achieve spiritual values. They are- Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these values is the realization of God. In the pursuit of these absolute values man rises higher and higher in the moral plane till he attains Divinity. For the achievement of these spiritual values of all the capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are – knowing, feeling and willing. By the fullest use of these capacities man can achieve the highest spiritual values and thus realize his true and ultimate self. J.S. Ross also opines-“Goodness, truth and beauty are seen to be absolutes each existing in its own right and entirely desirable in it.”
IMPORTANTS OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
            Idealists give much importance to the Self of the individual. Hence, they insist upon the fullest development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality means achievement of Perfection. Plato rightly speak that each individual has an ideal Self. He tries to develop that ideal Self more and more. This is self- realization in the true sense of the term. It may be noted that self -realization means knowledge of the self or soul. The self -realization can only be achieved in society. In short, Idealism believes in the welfare of whole human community.
FULL SUPPORT TO THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY IN  DIVERSITY
            Idealists give full support to the principle of Unity in Diversity. This underlying divine force maintains the existence and working of all entities. Idealists call this power as God, the Supreme Force which is omnipotent and omnipresent. Realization of this Supreme force in one’s Self is to attain divinity and fullest development of personality which may be called spiritual fulfillment. 
IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION 
 The following are the aims of education according to the philosophy of Idealism.
3.1            SELF REALIZATION OR EXHALTATION OF PERSONALITY
            According to Idealism, man is the most beautiful creation of God. Hence, the advocates of Idealism lay great stress on the exhalation of human personality. By exhalation of human personality, they mean self-realization. Self-realization involves full knowledge of the self. Hence, the first aim of education according to Idealism is to develop the ‘Self’ of the individual higher and higher till self-realization is achieved.
3.2            TO ENSURE SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT
            Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. Thus, according to them, the second aim of education is to develop the child mentally, morally and above all spiritually. Thus, the teacher should so organize education as to develop the child spiritually.
3.3             TO CULTIVATE TRUTH, BEAUTY AND GOODNESS
            Idealists assert that to develop spiritual values in the individuals, pursuit of highest ideals namely- Truth, Beauty and Goodness should be encouraged more and more. The more an individual realizes these ideals, the more spiritually developed he will become. Hence, education should strive its utmost in developing the child morally and spiritually so that he achieves self-realization.
CONSERVATION, PROMOTION AND TRANSMISSION OF   CULTURAL HERITAGE
            The cultural heritage is of immense worth and value. It belongs to whole humanity and it is the purpose of education to preserve, deserve, develop and transmit it. It is for education to acquaint the child with cultural heritage so that he conserves, promotes and transmits it to the rising generation. This is done through the process of self-estrangement.
CONVERTION OF INBORN NATURE INTO SPIRITUAL NATURE
            Idealists hold the view that the inborn instincts and inherent tendencies of the child should be sublimated into spiritual qualities and values. This is real development of the individuality. Only then, it will be possible for the individual to attain fullest and highest development of personality.
 PREPARATION FOR HOLY LIFE
            In the words of Frobel “the object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life”. This may be possible by developing courtesy i.e. politeness good breeding, urbanity, docrum, modesty, respect for public opinion, liberty etc; Justice i.e. honesty, speaking truth, integrity, uprightness etc; respect for low.
DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE AND RATIONALITY
            Adams has defined education from the point of view of an Idealist. According to him there is a purpose in all objects and natural phenomena. He has further said that the world is planned and well-organized. There are set principles working in this creation. An Idealist always tries to discover and understand this principle so that on the basis of moral elements the world remains organized.
EDUCATION TO THE LEVEL OF CAPACITY
            The individual aim of education has been clearly expressed by Sir Pery Nunn; “Nothing good enters into the human world except in and through the free activities of individual men and women, and the educational practice must be shaped to accord with the truth’’.
‘Education’, therefore must serve for everyone “the conditions under which individuality is most completely developed’’.
 IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM
            While structuring curriculum, Idealists give more importance to thoughts, feelings, ideals and values than to the child and his activities. They firmly hold that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. These experiences can be imbibed by two ways namely- (1) from the physical environment and (2) from contacts with other fellowmen. In this way, in an Idealistic curriculum, both the scientific subjects as well as the humanities are included. In the following discussion we are throwing light on the ideas of Plato, Herbart, Nunn and Ross about curriculum.
A.                 PLATO
            Plato was staunch idealist. According to him, the aim of life is to realize God which is possible only by pursuing high ideals namely Truth, Beauty and Goodness. These high ideals can be attained by three types of activities namely intellectual, aesthetic and moral.
B.                 HERBART
            According to Herbart the Idealistic aim of education is the promotion of moral values. Hence, he gave prime importance to subjects like Literature, History, Art, Music, Poetry, together with other Humanities and secondary place to scientific subjects.
C.                  NUNN
            Views of Nunn about curriculum are also based on the philosophy of Idealism. According to him, it is the function of schools to promote and maintain morality and the historical tradition to preserve and develop its achievements more and more. This is possible only when the school includes those activities and subjects in its curriculum which reflect the achievements of human culture and civilization. Hence, Nunn emphatically advocates the inclusion in the curriculum, those attainments which reflect the highest creations of human mind and those activities which involve the noblest expressions of human ingenuity and creative intelligence. Nunn has divided these activities into two categories: (1) Physical, Social, Moral and Religious and (2) Literary and Aesthetic.
D.                 ROSS
            He holds the view that one can develop spiritually when he is developed physically and these are both important for physical skill and health education. He wanted to teach physical exercise, intellectual exercise with the help of literature, language, history, geography, science and mathematics along with ethics for moral development. For spiritual development he wanted aesthetics to be taught with fine arts and religion with religion and metaphysics.
 IDEALISM AND TEACHER
            In the realm of Idealism, the role of teacher is very important and glorious. Idealistic philosophy believes that this planned creation has two parts-(1) The teacher and (2) The child as student. Both aims at one target only- The development of the individual child in a spiritual way. The realization of this great aim is possible only through education and the essential agent, the teacher. In reality an Idealist teacher is imbued fully with high degree of self-knowledge, self-dynamism and essential qualities of spiritualism. By his own model of life, he tries to shape the individuality of the child to a life of purity, virtue and great achievements. He creates a wholesome conducive atmosphere by his own activities and planned experiences for the child. He guides the child with such genuine love, affection and sympathy that he attains his full mental and spiritual development. J. S. Ross aptly remarks- “The Naturalist may be content with the brains, but the Idealist wants fine roses. So the educator by his efforts assists the educand, who is developing according to the laws of his nature to attain levels that would otherwise be denied to him.’’
 IDELISM AND TEACHING METHODS                                                          
            The aims of Idealism are concrete and definite. But there is no specific method for achieving them. Socrates used Question-Answer method Plato emphasize Discourse Method and Aristotle advocated Inductive-Deductive method. In the works of Hegel, Logical Measuring is evident.
Descrates employed the device of   Simple to Complex. Pestalozzi laid stress on education of the physical organs and allied activities. Herbart advocated Instruction Method. Frobel insisted upon Play – way Method. Not only this, other Idealists advocated many more methods namely – Discussion, Lecture, Talk in groups. In this way, according to Idealists no specific method is to be adhered to. In their opinion any and every method may be employed to realize the ideals set and determined before. Butler has rightly remarked – “Idealists consider themselves as creators and determiners of methods, not devotees of someone method”. 
IDEALISM AND DISCIPLINE
            Discipline is to be inculcated through morals for which the following needs to be remembered.
·         Moral education is training in habits and not an inculcation of mere theoretical views.
·         A mechanical virtue, in which a youth exercise a minimum moral choice and obeys an external rule prescribed for him, is to be inculcated. In this lowest species of moral discipline the youth learns self denial and self control. There are to be inculcated as an elementary base of moral code of discipline.
Lack of discipline in a school scope the moral character of the pupil. It allows him to work merely as he pleases, and he never can reinforce his feeble will by regularity, punctuality and sympathetic industry. He grows up in such a way that neither he does unreasonable and nor allows others to do so.
Too strict discipline undermines moral character by emphasizing too much the mechanical duties and especially the phase of obedience to authority, and it leaves the pupil in the state of perennial minority. He does not assimilate the law of duty and makes it his own. The law does not touch his heart but is on his lips only. He fears it but not love it. The tyrant teacher produces hypocrisy and deceit in his pupils. Even when there is simple implicit obedience in the place of fraud, there is no independent character development to take correct decision.
The best help that one can give to his follows is that which enables him to help them. The best school is that which enables the teachers to help themselves. The best instruction is morality makes the pupil a law up to himself.
IDEALISM AND SCHOOL
            School is a place where the capacities of logical thinking, reasoning and evaluating of the child are progressively sublimated and developed by teachers and the school environment into desirable channels so that high spiritual ideals and values are gained. Such noble mission, according to Idealism may be achieved through proper guidance of teacher given in school. Hence, Idealists considered school and its impressionistic environment as greatly essential
EVALUATION OF IDEALISM
            Proper evaluation of Idealism is possible only when one reviews its merits and demerits in greater detail.
DEMERITS OF IDEALISM
            The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine. It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world. It is concerned with the ultimate end of life. It avoids the real problem day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals capable to solve the problems to confront them from time to time and are able to lead happy and contented life. Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily. It emphasizes upon the achievement of immortal VALUES NAMELY, Truth, Beauty and goodness. These values are not absolute. Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.  Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern education, these methods are given little importance. In idealistic education humanities are given greater importance for the spiritual development of the child, while the present age of science lays great stress upon scientific subjects in the curriculum.
MERITS OF IDEALISM
            In the realm of aims of education, Idealism has made signal contribution. It is only this philosophy wherein a detailed exposition of aims has been emphasized. Idealistic education emphasizes the inculcation of highest values namely, Truth, Beauty and Goodness. This will lead to the development of a moral character of the child. It aims at self – realization of all individuals by one’s own efforts. Hence, it promotes universal education. In the process of idealistic education, the teacher assigned a very important role. The teacher influences the child by his high ideals of life and by his sympathetic encouraging behavior. This achieves the fullest development of child’s personality. Idealism respects the individuality of the child and tries to stimulate his creative energies. Thus, Idealism has influenced other philosophies as well. Idealism emphasizes the principle of self-discipline. This principle leads to the development of the ‘Self’ of an individual. Because of the Idealistic philosophy and education, the school has grown into an important social organization. 
            The above discussion clearly shows that Idealism has merits as well as demerit. In the present world of today which is full of stresses, strains, conflicts, envies and material struggles, the need of idealistic education is greatly essential for peaceful living of human beings devoted to social good and national welfare.  
CONCLUSION
            Idealism is basically a philosophy of life and it has exercised, like all philosophies of life, a general rather than a specific influence on education. In philosophy it has taken many forms but all of them agree to the view that the universe is an expression of intelligence and will; that there are certain absolute and eternal truths of life; that the ultimate reality is in the nature of mind rather than in the nature of mater. The latter is perishable and changing; it is an external manifestation of a reality which is not affected by the phenomenon of change. Through the whole of the universe is running a spirit which along is a reality, and knowledge of and reconciliation with that spirit of the individual’s soul is real knowledge. That is the real truth. Appreciation of that truth in its various forms is real art- a thing of real beauty. Conformity of the human will with the moral administration of the universe is real goodness. The difference between idealism and materialism is fundamental-whereas idealism regards mind as the sole explainer of reality, materialism regards that as a phenomenon of matter.
            Idealism lays emphasis on the study of all subjects but stresses the importance of literature, ethics and religion which are recognized to that degree by other philosophies. The teacher has a very important role in education for it is he who leads the individual from darkness into light and who helps him to exalt his personality. As a philosophy idealism with its old form has been sometimes dubbed as rigid and conservative but the modern idealistic outlook is broader and the world is fast realizing how a rejection of the eternal values of life is creating a vacuum into which have crept in so many evils and which may be ultimately fatal to the whole civilization. In India idealism in the form of spiritualism was developed very early as the sole philosophy of life and throughout the ages the same philosophy has kept inspiring the Indian mind and evoking a reverence for it.


Idealism
By_________


History and nature:

Idealism is the oldest and most talked about philosophy of education. Its popularity has never decreased right form its origination. This philosophy in the formal form was originated by Plato, in 427-346 B.C.  This philosophy in the beginning was known as ideaism where the focus was on the ideas. Latter it started to be known as idealism but emphasis still is on the nature of ideas rather than on their ideal status. Plato was supported latter by Ddescarte, Hegal, Spinoza and Karl Marx. According to these philosophers the basic reality of life is based on ideas, minds and thoughts. Ideas formulate the fundamental bases of the ladder of the priorities of life.


Matter

Life

Mind

Idea

       

Mind, life and matter are the next important steps of this ladder. Everything begins when the ideas are conceived. The central principle of idealism is that of organic wholeness where a kind of inner-harmony exist between the man, world and the universe.


                                                                         Man

                  
                                                                        Universe

                                                                        Planet

                                                                        Earth

Idealists asserts that mind is prior to matter. Matter can not be observed appreciated and utilized if it is not noticed by mind in the form of idea and thoughts.


Objectives of education

The objectives put forward by Plato are still accepted in this modern era as the fundamental aims of education. The following are the key objectives of education according to idealism:

1.               Intellectual development

Development of the mind and thinking faculties are advocated the most. Because ideas are considered to be the products of minds and the very basic realities. Education must do its best to develop the abilities of the people. This will promote logical thinking, rational attitudes and analytical activities. Balanced intellectual development gives birth to balance and successful personalities.


2.               Self- realization

This refers to acquisition of knowledge about our selves and exploration of this knowledge for the sake of understanding. This is considered to be the highest aim of education. Teachers and adults should enable the students to identify their strengths and weaknesses right form their early age. They should also be talked to maximize the positive aspects of the personalities and to minimize the negative elements. This will promote growth of balanced personalities. Such activities should be organized which will help the individuals to develop and improve physical, intellectual, morally and spiritually. This development will enable them to seek and support truth to avoid evil, to tolerate hardships and to live and let others live peacefully.


3.               Values inculcation

Values are the most sophisticated products of the mind. Inculcation of good values is another key objective of this philosophy of education. According to idealists basic values that need to be developed through education are intellectual, moral and spiritual. Horn. H.H a famous idealist has arranged values of education in the following order

i.                 Health

Both physical and mental health should be developed throughout our lives.

ii.               Worship

This brings humbleness and gratitude and brings us closer to the creator.

iii.             Character

Development of high character is not only beneficial for the individuals but promotes peace and justice in the society also.

iv.             Beauty

Promotion, appreciation, development and creation of beauty in nature and in our personal and public life makes this world worth living.


4.               Skills development

These are very important for the self-sufficiency, economic development and overall progress of the individual and societies. Individuals rich with skills never face economic or social problems.


Idealism

Idealism



Idealism
By_________


History and nature:

Idealism is the oldest and most talked about philosophy of education. Its popularity has never decreased right form its origination. This philosophy in the formal form was originated by Plato, in 427-346 B.C.  This philosophy in the beginning was known as ideaism where the focus was on the ideas. Latter it started to be known as idealism but emphasis still is on the nature of ideas rather than on their ideal status. Plato was supported latter by Ddescarte, Hegal, Spinoza and Karl Marx. According to these philosophers the basic reality of life is based on ideas, minds and thoughts. Ideas formulate the fundamental bases of the ladder of the priorities of life.


Matter

Life

Mind

Idea

       

Mind, life and matter are the next important steps of this ladder. Everything begins when the ideas are conceived. The central principle of idealism is that of organic wholeness where a kind of inner-harmony exist between the man, world and the universe.


                                                                         Man

                  
                                                                        Universe

                                                                        Planet

                                                                        Earth

Idealists asserts that mind is prior to matter. Matter can not be observed appreciated and utilized if it is not noticed by mind in the form of idea and thoughts.


Objectives of education

The objectives put forward by Plato are still accepted in this modern era as the fundamental aims of education. The following are the key objectives of education according to idealism:

1.               Intellectual development

Development of the mind and thinking faculties are advocated the most. Because ideas are considered to be the products of minds and the very basic realities. Education must do its best to develop the abilities of the people. This will promote logical thinking, rational attitudes and analytical activities. Balanced intellectual development gives birth to balance and successful personalities.


2.               Self- realization

This refers to acquisition of knowledge about our selves and exploration of this knowledge for the sake of understanding. This is considered to be the highest aim of education. Teachers and adults should enable the students to identify their strengths and weaknesses right form their early age. They should also be talked to maximize the positive aspects of the personalities and to minimize the negative elements. This will promote growth of balanced personalities. Such activities should be organized which will help the individuals to develop and improve physical, intellectual, morally and spiritually. This development will enable them to seek and support truth to avoid evil, to tolerate hardships and to live and let others live peacefully.


3.               Values inculcation

Values are the most sophisticated products of the mind. Inculcation of good values is another key objective of this philosophy of education. According to idealists basic values that need to be developed through education are intellectual, moral and spiritual. Horn. H.H a famous idealist has arranged values of education in the following order

i.                 Health

Both physical and mental health should be developed throughout our lives.

ii.               Worship

This brings humbleness and gratitude and brings us closer to the creator.

iii.             Character

Development of high character is not only beneficial for the individuals but promotes peace and justice in the society also.

iv.             Beauty

Promotion, appreciation, development and creation of beauty in nature and in our personal and public life makes this world worth living.


4.               Skills development

These are very important for the self-sufficiency, economic development and overall progress of the individual and societies. Individuals rich with skills never face economic or social problems.




INTRODUCTION
Idealism is a very old philosophical thought and it has exercised a potent influence on the mind of man throughout the ages. Even in modern times when people are not inclined towards accepting any dogmatic creed or philosophy, idealism has certain attractions which appeal to the human mind and thereby exercise a great influence on human thinking. In education the influence of idealism has gone a long way to restrict some of the radical thinking and establish the worth of the eternal ideals and values of life.
 The word idealism is derived from two distinct sources-the idea and the ideal. Idea means true and testified knowledge. The word ideal stands for the perfected form of an idea or ideas. An idealist does not have considerations for material values of life. A thinker who idolizes ‘Mind and Self’ is an idealist. Idealism is one of the oldest schools of philosophy.
TYPES OF IDEALISM

(a) ABSOLUTE IDEALISM
               It is the one type which has found its way into educational philosophy. This lays down that the heart of reality is to be found in thought or reason. Reason is absolute; in fact it is the absolute. Being absolute, it is also one i.e., monistic. Everything, thus, is interrelated and all contradictions reconciled. Furthermore the complete cause of any single occurrence involves the whole of reality. The cosmos is great thought process, and the absolute is god thinking. Everything happens as a result of the self-willed idea i. e. absolute. The absolute is already complete, and self-realized. Nature is the medium through which the absolute progressively reveals itself in external form. Mind of man however, is a part of the absolute whole. The absolute being the whole and education being a part thereof, it may be that study of the fragment may reveal important facts of the totality.
              The centralistic approach to idealism on the whole has committed this educational philosophy to the prominent importance of consciousness. Mind is ultimately spiritual, not materialistic. Human nature is to be viewed, as more than a behaving organism, responding to the stimuli of its environment. Man is too atomistic. Idealism stresses certain wholeness. Nothing happens in any part of the system that does not affect the rest.                                                              
               On religious and moral education, the definition of the absolute is unmistakably of theistic characteristics. Since the aim of education is the increasing realization of the absolute, all education appears tinged with religious significance. This includes moral education. Reason being the absolute, the universe is one of law and order. So too there is a oral law in the universe backed by the authority of the absolute. Thus lays an inescapable moral imperative on education.
(b) MODERN IDEALISM
               It has given a different tune to educational philosophy. In this concept idealism more to do this idea as metal state. n this idealism might be called a philosophy of idealism. The `I` of idealism being interested for euphony. The knowledge one has of his environment is idea of it. The environment in itself cannot be known through intermediate idea of it. The environments in itself cannot be known directly. It can only be known through intermediate idea of human knower. From which the learner’s knowledge takes, therefore, is bound to be in part the product of his human way of apprehending it. Such concepts are supplied by the mind of human learning.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF IDEALISM
The fundamental principles of idealism are:
 (1) TWO FORMS OF THE WHOLE WORLD
 Idealism believes in two forms of the world- Spiritual world and Material world, Idealists gives more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth whereas the material world is transitory and moral. According to Horne- “Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space and time of an eternal and spiritual reality.”
(2) IDEAS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN OBJECT
According to Idealists, knowledge of mind and soul can be obtained through ideas only. Hence, they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material or later. In the words of Plato “Ideas are of the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essences or archetypes which give form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging.”
(3)IMPORTANCE OF MAN OVER NATUR
To Idealists, man is more important than material nature. It is because man can think and experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are but the moulds and transforms the environment for his own good and welfare of the society. In short, he creates his own world of virtue and his creativity achieves higher and higher levels of art in many areas.
(4)FAITH IN SPIRITUAL VALUES
According to Idealists, prime aim of life is to achieve spiritual values-Truth, beauty and goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these values is the realization of god. In the pursuit of these absolute values man rises higher and higher in the moral plane till he attains divinity. For the achievement of these spiritual values all the capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are- knowing, feeling and willing. 
(5)IMPORTANCE OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
 Idealists give much importance to the ‘self’ of the individual. Hence they insist upon the fullest development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality means achievement of ‘perfection’. Plato rightly speaks that each individual has an ideal self. He tries to develop that ideal ‘self’ more and more. This self-realization is the true sense of the term. It may be noted that self-realization means knowledge of the ‘self’ or soul. This self-realization can only be achieved in society. Hence, development of social qualities is very essential for self-realization as it expresses itself in the form of love, sympathy, fellow-feeling and co-operation for the good of all and discrimination among human beings on any basis of caste, creed, sex, race or status etc. It clears the fact that Idealism advocates the concept of universal education. In short Idealism believes in the welfare of whole human community.
(6)FULL SUPPORT TO THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY IN DIVERSITY
 Idealists give full support to the principle of Unity in Diversity. They believe that is of spiritual nature. This may be called Universal Consciousness or Divinity. This underlying divine force maintains the existence and working of all entities. Idealists call this power as God, the Supreme Force which is omnipotent and omnipresent.
IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life. In this context Ross puts forth the view, “The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to our life.’’ Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below                                                                                                                                                            
(1)  SELF REALIZATION.
                     According to idealism man is the most beautiful creation of god-His grandest work. It lays great stress on the exaltation  of human personality it is self-realization  The aim of education is to develop the self  of the  individuals  higher till  self-realization is  achieved  It is in fact making actual  or real the highest potentialities of the self.
(2) UNIVERSAL EDUCATION.
                   Education according to idealism should be universal in nature.  The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of Universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the Universe
(3) SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT.
               Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk, “Education must enable Mankind   through its culture to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm”.
(4)TRANSMISSION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
The aim of idealistic education is the preservation ; enrichment  and  transmission of culture, Education  must contribute  to the development  of  culture .It  should   help  in enlarging  the boundaries of spiritual realm
(5)CULTIVATION OF MORAL VALUES
                According   to idealism, man is   essentially a moral being.   Therefore, moral, intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According  to Dr.Prem  Nath “The  process of education must  lead to the  deepest spiritual  insight and  to the highest moral  and spiritual insight and  to the  highest  moral and  spiritual insight and to the highest moral and  spiritual conduct .”
(6)  PREPARATION FOR A HOLY LIFE
              Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life. Froebel says.”The object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life.’’
(7) DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE AND RATIONALITY
                 Idealism wishes that education should develop the mind fully. It makes a person rational as well. Only the highly developed mind can understand the all pervading force. The  idealists   believe  that education   must  help  in  the  full  evolution  of  mind  ,  the emancipation  of   spirit, self  realization  and  the  realization of higher  values of  life  and to train the whole man  completely  and  fully  for  manhood  and  not  some  part of man.
IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM
While developing curriculum, idealists give more importance to thought, feelings, ideals and values than   to the child and his activities.  They firmly hold   that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. It must consist of humanities.
The   curriculum should give   good mental experience of all types. So  cognition  (knowing)  affecting  (feeling)  and  conation  (striving)  should  find  due place.  Sciences and art should be taught   as fully integrated.  Since the  main  aim  of education  according  to the  philosophy  of  idealism   is to  preserve  and  advance  the  culture  of  human   race  ,so   subjects  like  Religion, Ethics, philosophy, History, Literature  etc,     should   be  provided    in  the  curriculum.  Healthy mind is found in healthy baby only.  So health, hygiene, games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.
IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.  According to idealism, class-room is a temple   of spiritual learning, a meeting place of human minds- a place for self education. For this no particular method has been suggested.However, the following methods have been advocated by different idealists:
·                     Learning   through reading
·                     Learning through lecturing
·                     Learning   through discussion
·                     Learning   through imitation
·                     Descrates   employed the device of simple to complex
 IDEALISM AND DISCIPLINE
                     Naturalism provides unrestricted freedom to the child whereas Idealism wants to keep the child under discipline. Idealists believe that there can be no spiritual development of the child without discipline. This leads to inner discipline. “The discipline is not to be imposed on pupils. The teacher has only to help them to develop self discipline and through that self knowledge”
                   Self-insight and self analysis are the main disciplinary factors. The main task of education is the cultivation of higher values of life through moral and religious education. It requires the teacher to present a good example and exercise lasting impact upon the pupil’s mind. A teacher is an ideal person to be emulated by this pupil.
IDEALISM AND TEACHER
                 Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as a spiritual guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the student. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He carries the child from darkness to light. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection
Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man’s spiritual heritage. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. An idealist teacher is a philosopher, friend and guide. According to Gentle- A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus, an indispensable necessity.
According to Froebel, the school is a garden, the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. The plant can grow, no doubt, without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Through teacher’s guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to perfection and beauty.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF IDEALISM TO EDUCATION
Idealistic philosophy in education emphasizes ‘the exaltation of personality’, which is the result of self-realization, achieved by spiritual knowledge, self-discipline and dignified teacher. Idealism assigns a very important place to the teacher who is respected as a guide, and philosopher. They emphasize the importance of moral and spiritual education and points out the values of humanities, social sciences, art and literature. It emphasizes man’s perfection in various facets of life-physical, spiritual, intellectual, moral, esthetic and social.
EVALUATION OF IDEALISM
  (1)The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine. It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world.
    (2) Idealism is concerned with the ultimate end of life. It avoids the real problems day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals capable to solve the problems that confront them from time to time able to lead a happy and contented life.
     (3) Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily.
    (4) Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.
    (5) Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern education, these methods are given little importance.
CONCLUSION
Idealism may be considered to be outmoded in the prevailing scientific world view. Idealistic concepts like ‘spirit’, ‘mind’, ‘soul’, and ‘the cosmos’ have little relevance in the class-room teaching. There is too much emphasis on good manners and modesty which may be mistaken. It neglects child’s psychological nature. Idealism does not contribute to methods of teaching. It sets unobtainable goals. Idealistic scheme of education, by and large, pays attention to physical, industrial, social and electronic environment of today. It neglects social aspects of life. It over emphasizes humanity and under rates science and technology. In all, we can say that idealistic approach to education has its own merits and shortcomings. It should, therefore, be supplemented by other philosophy or philosophies of education. 


READ ALSO : IMPLICATIONS OF PRAGMATISM IN EDUCATION
                        EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS OF VIVEKANANDA

IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM



INTRODUCTION
Idealism is a very old philosophical thought and it has exercised a potent influence on the mind of man throughout the ages. Even in modern times when people are not inclined towards accepting any dogmatic creed or philosophy, idealism has certain attractions which appeal to the human mind and thereby exercise a great influence on human thinking. In education the influence of idealism has gone a long way to restrict some of the radical thinking and establish the worth of the eternal ideals and values of life.
 The word idealism is derived from two distinct sources-the idea and the ideal. Idea means true and testified knowledge. The word ideal stands for the perfected form of an idea or ideas. An idealist does not have considerations for material values of life. A thinker who idolizes ‘Mind and Self’ is an idealist. Idealism is one of the oldest schools of philosophy.
TYPES OF IDEALISM

(a) ABSOLUTE IDEALISM
               It is the one type which has found its way into educational philosophy. This lays down that the heart of reality is to be found in thought or reason. Reason is absolute; in fact it is the absolute. Being absolute, it is also one i.e., monistic. Everything, thus, is interrelated and all contradictions reconciled. Furthermore the complete cause of any single occurrence involves the whole of reality. The cosmos is great thought process, and the absolute is god thinking. Everything happens as a result of the self-willed idea i. e. absolute. The absolute is already complete, and self-realized. Nature is the medium through which the absolute progressively reveals itself in external form. Mind of man however, is a part of the absolute whole. The absolute being the whole and education being a part thereof, it may be that study of the fragment may reveal important facts of the totality.
              The centralistic approach to idealism on the whole has committed this educational philosophy to the prominent importance of consciousness. Mind is ultimately spiritual, not materialistic. Human nature is to be viewed, as more than a behaving organism, responding to the stimuli of its environment. Man is too atomistic. Idealism stresses certain wholeness. Nothing happens in any part of the system that does not affect the rest.                                                              
               On religious and moral education, the definition of the absolute is unmistakably of theistic characteristics. Since the aim of education is the increasing realization of the absolute, all education appears tinged with religious significance. This includes moral education. Reason being the absolute, the universe is one of law and order. So too there is a oral law in the universe backed by the authority of the absolute. Thus lays an inescapable moral imperative on education.
(b) MODERN IDEALISM
               It has given a different tune to educational philosophy. In this concept idealism more to do this idea as metal state. n this idealism might be called a philosophy of idealism. The `I` of idealism being interested for euphony. The knowledge one has of his environment is idea of it. The environment in itself cannot be known through intermediate idea of it. The environments in itself cannot be known directly. It can only be known through intermediate idea of human knower. From which the learner’s knowledge takes, therefore, is bound to be in part the product of his human way of apprehending it. Such concepts are supplied by the mind of human learning.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF IDEALISM
The fundamental principles of idealism are:
 (1) TWO FORMS OF THE WHOLE WORLD
 Idealism believes in two forms of the world- Spiritual world and Material world, Idealists gives more importance to spiritual world in comparison to the material world. They believe that spiritual world is real and the ultimate truth whereas the material world is transitory and moral. According to Horne- “Idealism holds that the order of the world is due to the manifestation in space and time of an eternal and spiritual reality.”
(2) IDEAS ARE MORE IMPORTANT THAN OBJECT
According to Idealists, knowledge of mind and soul can be obtained through ideas only. Hence, they have given more importance to ideas over the objects and material or later. In the words of Plato “Ideas are of the ultimate cosmic significance. They are rather the essences or archetypes which give form to cosmos. These ideas are eternal and unchanging.”
(3)IMPORTANCE OF MAN OVER NATUR
To Idealists, man is more important than material nature. It is because man can think and experience about material objects and material phenomena. Hence, the thinker or the one who experiences is more important than the object or the phenomena experienced. Man is endowed with intelligence and a sense of discrimination. Thus, he is not a slave of the environment as animals are but the moulds and transforms the environment for his own good and welfare of the society. In short, he creates his own world of virtue and his creativity achieves higher and higher levels of art in many areas.
(4)FAITH IN SPIRITUAL VALUES
According to Idealists, prime aim of life is to achieve spiritual values-Truth, beauty and goodness. These spiritual values are undying and permanent. The realization of these values is the realization of god. In the pursuit of these absolute values man rises higher and higher in the moral plane till he attains divinity. For the achievement of these spiritual values all the capacities of man are to be harnessed to the full. These capacities are- knowing, feeling and willing. 
(5)IMPORTANCE OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
 Idealists give much importance to the ‘self’ of the individual. Hence they insist upon the fullest development of the personality of an individual. According to them the development of personality means achievement of ‘perfection’. Plato rightly speaks that each individual has an ideal self. He tries to develop that ideal ‘self’ more and more. This self-realization is the true sense of the term. It may be noted that self-realization means knowledge of the ‘self’ or soul. This self-realization can only be achieved in society. Hence, development of social qualities is very essential for self-realization as it expresses itself in the form of love, sympathy, fellow-feeling and co-operation for the good of all and discrimination among human beings on any basis of caste, creed, sex, race or status etc. It clears the fact that Idealism advocates the concept of universal education. In short Idealism believes in the welfare of whole human community.
(6)FULL SUPPORT TO THE PRINCIPLE OF UNITY IN DIVERSITY
 Idealists give full support to the principle of Unity in Diversity. They believe that is of spiritual nature. This may be called Universal Consciousness or Divinity. This underlying divine force maintains the existence and working of all entities. Idealists call this power as God, the Supreme Force which is omnipotent and omnipresent.
IDEALISM AND AIMS OF EDUCATION
Idealism prescribes certain fundamental aims of education which are directly influenced by the aims and principles of life. In this context Ross puts forth the view, “The function of education is to help us in our exploration of the ultimate universal values so that truth of the universe may become our truth and give power to our life.’’ Some of the important aims of education as laid down by idealists are given below                                                                                                                                                            
(1)  SELF REALIZATION.
                     According to idealism man is the most beautiful creation of god-His grandest work. It lays great stress on the exaltation  of human personality it is self-realization  The aim of education is to develop the self  of the  individuals  higher till  self-realization is  achieved  It is in fact making actual  or real the highest potentialities of the self.
(2) UNIVERSAL EDUCATION.
                   Education according to idealism should be universal in nature.  The universe is regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of Universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the Universe
(3) SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT.
               Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material attainments. According to Rusk, “Education must enable Mankind   through its culture to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual realm”.
(4)TRANSMISSION AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE
The aim of idealistic education is the preservation ; enrichment  and  transmission of culture, Education  must contribute  to the development  of  culture .It  should   help  in enlarging  the boundaries of spiritual realm
(5)CULTIVATION OF MORAL VALUES
                According   to idealism, man is   essentially a moral being.   Therefore, moral, intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted. According  to Dr.Prem  Nath “The  process of education must  lead to the  deepest spiritual  insight and  to the highest moral  and spiritual insight and  to the  highest  moral and  spiritual insight and to the highest moral and  spiritual conduct .”
(6)  PREPARATION FOR A HOLY LIFE
              Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life. Froebel says.”The object of education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life.’’
(7) DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENCE AND RATIONALITY
                 Idealism wishes that education should develop the mind fully. It makes a person rational as well. Only the highly developed mind can understand the all pervading force. The  idealists   believe  that education   must  help  in  the  full  evolution  of  mind  ,  the emancipation  of   spirit, self  realization  and  the  realization of higher  values of  life  and to train the whole man  completely  and  fully  for  manhood  and  not  some  part of man.
IDEALISM AND CURRICULUM
While developing curriculum, idealists give more importance to thought, feelings, ideals and values than   to the child and his activities.  They firmly hold   that curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. It must consist of humanities.
The   curriculum should give   good mental experience of all types. So  cognition  (knowing)  affecting  (feeling)  and  conation  (striving)  should  find  due place.  Sciences and art should be taught   as fully integrated.  Since the  main  aim  of education  according  to the  philosophy  of  idealism   is to  preserve  and  advance  the  culture  of  human   race  ,so   subjects  like  Religion, Ethics, philosophy, History, Literature  etc,     should   be  provided    in  the  curriculum.  Healthy mind is found in healthy baby only.  So health, hygiene, games and sports should find an important place in the curriculum.
IDEALISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING
Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching.  According to idealism, class-room is a temple   of spiritual learning, a meeting place of human minds- a place for self education. For this no particular method has been suggested.However, the following methods have been advocated by different idealists:
·                     Learning   through reading
·                     Learning through lecturing
·                     Learning   through discussion
·                     Learning   through imitation
·                     Descrates   employed the device of simple to complex
 IDEALISM AND DISCIPLINE
                     Naturalism provides unrestricted freedom to the child whereas Idealism wants to keep the child under discipline. Idealists believe that there can be no spiritual development of the child without discipline. This leads to inner discipline. “The discipline is not to be imposed on pupils. The teacher has only to help them to develop self discipline and through that self knowledge”
                   Self-insight and self analysis are the main disciplinary factors. The main task of education is the cultivation of higher values of life through moral and religious education. It requires the teacher to present a good example and exercise lasting impact upon the pupil’s mind. A teacher is an ideal person to be emulated by this pupil.
IDEALISM AND TEACHER
                 Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as a spiritual guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the student. He sets the environment in which education takes place. He carries the child from darkness to light. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection
Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man’s spiritual heritage. He is a co-worker with God in perfecting man. An idealist teacher is a philosopher, friend and guide. According to Gentle- A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is thus, an indispensable necessity.
According to Froebel, the school is a garden, the teacher is a cautious gardener and the child is a tender plant. The plant can grow, no doubt, without help but the good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Through teacher’s guidance the child can make his natural development into a process leading to perfection and beauty.
CONTRIBUTIONS OF IDEALISM TO EDUCATION
Idealistic philosophy in education emphasizes ‘the exaltation of personality’, which is the result of self-realization, achieved by spiritual knowledge, self-discipline and dignified teacher. Idealism assigns a very important place to the teacher who is respected as a guide, and philosopher. They emphasize the importance of moral and spiritual education and points out the values of humanities, social sciences, art and literature. It emphasizes man’s perfection in various facets of life-physical, spiritual, intellectual, moral, esthetic and social.
EVALUATION OF IDEALISM
  (1)The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague doctrine. It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world.
    (2) Idealism is concerned with the ultimate end of life. It avoids the real problems day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals capable to solve the problems that confront them from time to time able to lead a happy and contented life.
     (3) Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily.
    (4) Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.
    (5) Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In modern education, these methods are given little importance.
CONCLUSION
Idealism may be considered to be outmoded in the prevailing scientific world view. Idealistic concepts like ‘spirit’, ‘mind’, ‘soul’, and ‘the cosmos’ have little relevance in the class-room teaching. There is too much emphasis on good manners and modesty which may be mistaken. It neglects child’s psychological nature. Idealism does not contribute to methods of teaching. It sets unobtainable goals. Idealistic scheme of education, by and large, pays attention to physical, industrial, social and electronic environment of today. It neglects social aspects of life. It over emphasizes humanity and under rates science and technology. In all, we can say that idealistic approach to education has its own merits and shortcomings. It should, therefore, be supplemented by other philosophy or philosophies of education. 


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