What is research and what are the Characteristics of educational research
Meaning of research: search again and again
Word Origin & History
As per the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, the word research is derived from the Middle French “recherche”, which means “to go about seeking”, the term itself being derived from the Old French term “recerchier” a compound word from “re-” + “cerchier”, or “sercher”, meaning ‘search’. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.
Definitions of Research
The main goal of research is the gathering and interpreting of information to answer questions
 (Hyllegard, Mood, and Morrow, 1996).
Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions(Tuckman, 1999).
Research may be defined as the systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalizations, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possible control of events (Best and Kahn, 1998).
“Educational Research is the systematic application of scientific method for solving educational problem” (Mouly) ‖
According to Whitney, ―Educational Research aims at finding out solution of educational problems by using scientific philosophical method.
The major concern of educational research is to understand, explain and to some extent predict and control human behaviors.
The main purpose of educational research is to improve teaching learning process and suggest effective steps for the proper utilization of educational resources
Educational research
       Educational research refers to a variety of methods, in which individuals evaluate different aspects of education including but not limited to: “student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics”.
Need for Research
Ø  Research is needed for the understanding of the personality and the development of personality which is the main aim of education
Ø  Education deals with all kinds of subjects and to understand the relationship between education and these subjects research is very necessary
Ø  The effectiveness of the teacher by research
Ø  As art it plays a vital role in the area of teaching, how to improve teaching and how a teacher could manage a classroom.
Ø  It deals with educational problems regarding students and teachers.
Ø  It uses classrooms, schools, colleges department of education as the laboratory for conducting research.
Ø  Research is needed for producing  good worker for the society and country by assessing the future need
Ø  Man want to know himself and for that he need research to dig up the history
Ø  The need to improve education by introducing new polices and plans through research
Ø  Improve Practice
Ø  Research can suggest ways of improving practice that have been verified with many applications and by many different types of people, which is difficult for teachers.
Ø  Add to Knowledge
Ø  Research can add to, what we know about, how people learn and what we can do to support the learning process.
Ø  Address Gaps in Knowledge
Ø  Research can address areas in which little information is available, like the effects of online versus traditional classroom learning.
Ø  Expand Knowledge
Ø  Research can allow us to extend what we know in ways we never imagined.
Ø  Replicate Knowledge
Ø  Research can act as a test to verify previous findings.
Ø  Add Voices of Individuals to Knowledge
Ø  Research can add an important perspective for different learning types. Research helps revise theory and practice to reflect different student needs.
Ø  Asking New Questions
Ø  Research always seek new questions about teaching, learning and curriculum
Ø  Research bring objectivity in education it remove the opinion of few persons or thoughts and formulate it according to the need of society and country
Ø  Bring Education Reform
Ø  With the changing  times it bring new reform to education polices and teaching learning process
Ø  Create sense of awareness
Ø  Research bring awareness in the society to improve the quality of education and education institutions in the country and look for new ways to improve the skills of the teacher and students
Ø  Research bring confidence in teacher
Ø  Research base teaching bring respect for teachers, it help to improve the teaching skills of the teacher and lead the teacher to adapt new methods for teaching
Ø  Research Need for selection
Ø  Research help the society what to teach and what not to teach.
Ø  Selection of the curriculum  for teaching and selection of students for the right subject

Ø  Research is a way of thinking and to qualify as a research it needs to have certain characteristics such as follows (adaptation of Leedy, 1993, Borg & Borg, 1983)
Ø  Research begins with a question in the mind of the researcher.
Ø  You need only to look around and everywhere you see phenomena which will arouse your interest. For example, why are children in this school unable to read?  Why are girls performing better than boys? These are situations which we do not understand. 
Ø  Research for studying the child
Ø  The knowledge of child psychology is very necessary for the teaching learning process and it is only possible through research in education institutions under the supervision of the psychologist and a good researcher
Ø  Research  Give us feedback
Ø  Research give us feedback on every step of education, the quality of teacher, the quality of curriculum, the behavior of the students, policies and planning and the need for the future
Ø  By asking relevant questions we create an environment which is essential for research
Ø  Research requires a plan.
Ø  One does not discover the truth or explanations about a phenomenon without serious and careful planning.  Research is not just by looking-up something in the hope of coming across the solution to your problem. Rather it needs a certain plan, direction and design
Ø  Research demands a clear statement of the problem.
Ø  Successful research begins with a clear, simple statement of the problem. The statement of the problem should be stated precisely and grammatically complete, must set forth what it seeks to discover and enables one to see what one is attempting to research
Ø  Research deals with the main problem through sub-problems.
Ø  Divide the main problem into appropriate sub-problems, all of which when resolved will result in the solution of the main research problem.
Ø  Research seeks direction through appropriate hypotheses
Ø  Having stated the problem and the related sub problems, the sub problems are then each viewed through logical constructs called hypotheses
Ø  A hypothesis is a logical reasonable guess, an educated estimation which may give direction to thinking with respect to the problem, and thus, aid in solving it.
Ø  Research deals with facts and their meaning.
Ø  Having defined the problem, the sub problems and hypothesis, the next step is to collect whatever facts related to the problem. Organize the data collected into a form that is potentially meaningful. 
Scope of research in Education
Ø  The scope of research refers to how far the research area has explored. The scope of research in the field of education is very vast. It includes; efficiency of the educational institutions, securing benefits of the educational institutions through practical measures,
Ø  Clarification of the functions and coordination of the educational programs, sound educational planning, good direction, efficient and systematic execution.
Ø  Research provides close collaboration and sense of sharing responsibilities, organized purpose and dynamic approach.
Ø  Explore new methods of coordination in student-teacher-parents-society.
Ø  Research provides well defined policies and programs, favorable teaching learning situation, growth and development of human beings, make use of appropriate materials,
Ø  Effective development of human qualities, execution of the programs, arrangement of the activities, efforts for attainment of the objectives etc.
Ø  Psychology of the teachers and their problem are the main concern of the researchers because without good and satisfied teachers one can’t expect good education from the teachers
Ø  Curriculum:  The area of curriculum is also the focus of the research, what to teach, what should be the objectives and goals of the curriculum
Ø  Psychology of students :   Students behavior is the most important aspect of the researchers to study and find their emotional and educational problem
Ø  Reforms/ amendments: Place for reforms and amendments
Ø  Discipline: Discipline in educational institutions is the most important factor in the process of teaching and learning which need research.
Ø  Classroom management
Classroom management is all of the things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and learning can take place (Wong, 1991).
Ø  Teaching methods
Research is discovering new method of teaching.
Ø  Educational environment
Ø  Home Environment
Ø  Evaluation
Continuous evaluation help in the improvement of school and teaching learning process
Ø  Parents and society role in the process of education
Ø  Resources Management:
Research in the field of resource management, Providing, arranging funds and resources for teaching learning process
Ø  Supervision and supervisor
Good education is result of good supervision upon the side of a good supervisor and to find the new method for supervision need research
Ø  Education planning
How to plan and what to plan for the education system, need research.Research explores new methods and gives new ideas for the betterment of educational planning.
Ø  Community: How to involve community in the supervision of school and teaching learning process, need research
How to select your Research topic
Selection of research problem/ Developing a Research Topic
Ø  Think of a topic which interests you and you think it needs to be investigated.
Ø  Start from a larger to a smaller picture (Narrow down research problem).
Ø  Expand the smaller picture through reading to match the research topic.
Ø  Be focused; clarify your topic in your mind.
Ø   State the problem clearly
Ø  The outcomes are productive for the well-being of society
Ø  From the field of the study
Ø  Problem is researchable and testable

Evaluate the Problem
  1. Researchable
  2. Is the Problem New
  3. Problem Significant
  4. Fill a gap in theory
  5. Important for society
  6. Implication of the finding of the study
  7. Problem feasible: researcher know the area, Financial, time
How to distinguish a good topic from bad one
Ø  Outcome significance
Ø  Feasible methodology
Ø  Time constraint
Ø  Required knowledge and skills
Ø  Equipment and supplies
Ø  Personnel
Ø  Funds
Ø  Committee approval (rationale, analysis,
Ø  True research

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