Showing posts with label Hypothesis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hypothesis. Show all posts




A general view
Ø    Hypothesis is a statement, temporarily accepted, as true in the light of what is known about a phenomenon which is proposed for further research.
Ø    It is a tentative assumption drawn from knowledge and theory which is used as a guide for investigation for other facts and theories that are yet unknown

·         A hypothesis states what we are looking for.
Ø    It is a provisional guess, which seems to:
   Explain the situation under observation
n     Definition of hypothesis
n     “Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain behavior, phenomenon that have occurred or will occur.
n     It is the most specific statement of the problem” (L.R. Gay 1992).
n     Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question. (John W. Best 1982)

Forms of hypothesis

NULL HYPOTHESIS
n     It states that there is no significant difference between in the two variables.

EXAMPLE
There is no significant difference in the instructional standard of single shift and double shift schools

PREDICTION FORM
n     This form of hypothesis allows the researcher to state principles which he actually imagine to emerge from theexperiment.

Declarative form
n     This type of hypothesis generally states the relationship between the concerned variables.
For example there will be a significant difference in the instructional standard of boys and girls schools 

QUESTION FORM

n     The declarative form may be question form if we read it in the form of question.
Example
n     Is there a significant difference in the instructional standard of boys and girls schools?

Importance of hypothesis
Ø    It provides direction to researcher
Ø    It defines what is relevant and what is irrelevant
Ø    It sensitize the researcher to certain aspects of the situation which are relevant from the problem view point.

Ø  It shows the difference between fruitful and fruitless research
Ø    It is a guide to the thinking process and the process of discovery.
Ø    It is investigator’s eyes.
Ø    It is a sort of guiding star in the world of darkness
Ø    Without hypothesis research would be like random and aimless wandering
Ø    It focuses on research and prevents blind research
Ø    It places clear and specific goals before the researcher
Ø    Continue….
Ø    It links together related facts and information and organizes them into one comprehensible whole
Ø    It is important because they have the power to predict.
Ø    It serves as a framework for drawing conclusion

Sources of hypothesis
 Deriving sufficient hypothesis is difficult than selecting of the problem.
There is no royal road to the discovery of fruitful hypothesis
n     A good investigator must have not onlyan alert mind, capable of deriving relevant hypothesis but also have a  critical mind capable of rejecting a faulty hypothesis

The following are the main sources of hypothesis
n     General culture
In the investigations for solving a problem we cannot ignore our general culture    ( religious, moral) to which we belong
n     Scientific Theory
We have to keep in mind various scientific
theories like sound body has sound mind.
Handicapped children face adjustment
problems, rest relieves fatigue
n     Personal experience
Good hypothesis can come only from
Experience; such as teacher punctuality
enhances students punctuality or good
study habit improve achievement
n     Analogies
It a very fertile source of hypothesis.it is the process of framing hypothesis from similarity and likeness, such as if a problem is similar in nature to a problem studied in a foreign country we may frame our hypothesis in the same manner

Characteristics
n     A good hypothesis is in agreement with the observe facts
n     A good hypothesis does not in conflict with any law of nature which is known to be true. When we say that there can be a memory tablets for strengthening memory we are trying to reject an establish law of nature.
n     A good hypothesis is stated in a scientific and research like language and is not an ordinary statement.
n     It is stated in the simplest possible terms
n     A good hypothesis permits the application of deductive reasoning
n     It should be framed so that its tests will provide an answer to the original problem.
n     Difficulties in the formulation of hypothesis
n     Lack of knowledge and clarity about the concerned area.
n     Lack of ability.
n     ambiguity of the statement
n     Testing the hypothesis
n     The worth of the validity of the hypothesis lies in its testing.
n     After formulating the hypothesis it is necessary to deduce:
n     its consequences.
n     Select or develop tools
n     Use the tool to confirm or reject the hypothesis
Hypothesis

Hypothesis





A general view
Ø    Hypothesis is a statement, temporarily accepted, as true in the light of what is known about a phenomenon which is proposed for further research.
Ø    It is a tentative assumption drawn from knowledge and theory which is used as a guide for investigation for other facts and theories that are yet unknown

·         A hypothesis states what we are looking for.
Ø    It is a provisional guess, which seems to:
   Explain the situation under observation
n     Definition of hypothesis
n     “Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain behavior, phenomenon that have occurred or will occur.
n     It is the most specific statement of the problem” (L.R. Gay 1992).
n     Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a question. (John W. Best 1982)

Forms of hypothesis

NULL HYPOTHESIS
n     It states that there is no significant difference between in the two variables.

EXAMPLE
There is no significant difference in the instructional standard of single shift and double shift schools

PREDICTION FORM
n     This form of hypothesis allows the researcher to state principles which he actually imagine to emerge from theexperiment.

Declarative form
n     This type of hypothesis generally states the relationship between the concerned variables.
For example there will be a significant difference in the instructional standard of boys and girls schools 

QUESTION FORM

n     The declarative form may be question form if we read it in the form of question.
Example
n     Is there a significant difference in the instructional standard of boys and girls schools?

Importance of hypothesis
Ø    It provides direction to researcher
Ø    It defines what is relevant and what is irrelevant
Ø    It sensitize the researcher to certain aspects of the situation which are relevant from the problem view point.

Ø  It shows the difference between fruitful and fruitless research
Ø    It is a guide to the thinking process and the process of discovery.
Ø    It is investigator’s eyes.
Ø    It is a sort of guiding star in the world of darkness
Ø    Without hypothesis research would be like random and aimless wandering
Ø    It focuses on research and prevents blind research
Ø    It places clear and specific goals before the researcher
Ø    Continue….
Ø    It links together related facts and information and organizes them into one comprehensible whole
Ø    It is important because they have the power to predict.
Ø    It serves as a framework for drawing conclusion

Sources of hypothesis
 Deriving sufficient hypothesis is difficult than selecting of the problem.
There is no royal road to the discovery of fruitful hypothesis
n     A good investigator must have not onlyan alert mind, capable of deriving relevant hypothesis but also have a  critical mind capable of rejecting a faulty hypothesis

The following are the main sources of hypothesis
n     General culture
In the investigations for solving a problem we cannot ignore our general culture    ( religious, moral) to which we belong
n     Scientific Theory
We have to keep in mind various scientific
theories like sound body has sound mind.
Handicapped children face adjustment
problems, rest relieves fatigue
n     Personal experience
Good hypothesis can come only from
Experience; such as teacher punctuality
enhances students punctuality or good
study habit improve achievement
n     Analogies
It a very fertile source of hypothesis.it is the process of framing hypothesis from similarity and likeness, such as if a problem is similar in nature to a problem studied in a foreign country we may frame our hypothesis in the same manner

Characteristics
n     A good hypothesis is in agreement with the observe facts
n     A good hypothesis does not in conflict with any law of nature which is known to be true. When we say that there can be a memory tablets for strengthening memory we are trying to reject an establish law of nature.
n     A good hypothesis is stated in a scientific and research like language and is not an ordinary statement.
n     It is stated in the simplest possible terms
n     A good hypothesis permits the application of deductive reasoning
n     It should be framed so that its tests will provide an answer to the original problem.
n     Difficulties in the formulation of hypothesis
n     Lack of knowledge and clarity about the concerned area.
n     Lack of ability.
n     ambiguity of the statement
n     Testing the hypothesis
n     The worth of the validity of the hypothesis lies in its testing.
n     After formulating the hypothesis it is necessary to deduce:
n     its consequences.
n     Select or develop tools
n     Use the tool to confirm or reject the hypothesis