Showing posts with label FORMAL EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label FORMAL EDUCATION. Show all posts
INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.

FORMAL EDUCATION AND ALTERNATIVES OF FORMAL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.


INTRODUCTION
                     Education is a thought full process by which the inner powers of the individual are developed. Education is verb broad in it true sense and is not confined to school experiences. But in a narrow sense education is a well-planned process. Education may be defined as a purposive conscious or unconscious psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process which brings about the development of the individual to the fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy maximum happiness and prosperity. T. Reymont has rightly remarked –“Education is that process of development in which consists the passage of human being from infancy to maturity, the process whereby he adapts himself gradually in various ways to his physical, social and spiritual environment.”
There are three important types of education,
EDUCATION
                                                
Formal      Non-formal    Informal
Formal education is that education where according to predetermined aims and methods of teaching, definite dozes of knowledge are thrust into the mind of a child at a specific place during a set duration of time by a particular individual.
E.g.  Schools, universities etc.
 Informal education is natural and incidental. There are no predetermined aims, curricula, methods, teachers and places where   children receive informal education:
E.g.: Family, community, peer groups, etc.                       
Non-formal education is in-between the formal and informal types of education. It is midway because it is partly formal and partly informal it is both intentional and incidental.
E.g. Open school, open universities, correspondence course etc.
Sir Godfrey Thomas has written, “The whole of environment is the instrument of man’s education in the wildest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as more particularly concerned, the home, the school, the church, press, the vacation, public life, amusement and hobbies”. Generally, of course, the process of education continues from birth to death, but some specific institution play more important part in it. All of these institutions are the agencies of education, and they include all these factors, bases, places or institutions, which have an educative influence upon the Child. Hence, the institutions, agencies and bases of education mean the same thing, and should be interpreted as such. Here are discussing about informal education and its agencies only.

INFOMAL EDUCATION
Education for no formalities are observed is known as informal type of education. In this type of education there is modification of the behavior of the learner but no conscious efforts are made for it. Whatever it is learnt here is not preplanned. It is natural and incidental. Here neither the teacher nor the learner is conscious of the process of teaching learning. In this type of education there are no pre-determined aims, no definite curriculum no well thought methods of teaching, no qualified and trained teachers and no definite place of education. Here education is received by the company of friends, relatives, community etc. whatever as education is received plays a very important and significant role in the life of educate. Informal education complements the formal education which has a particular pattern. Education of this kind has no specific time or place at which it is provided. Even the educator is not fixed. All fixed syllabi, rules, formalities are absent from it. Education of this kind in the education one receives while playing in field, talking to family members in the house, roaming around somewhere, in fact everywhere. This kind of education never comes to an end. And it teaches the individual more than he ever learns through his formal education. A child learns many things when he comes in contact with new people. He discovers many new words when he goes to new places. This education that he receives cannot be evaluated as formal education can. Format education can be evaluated by some specific techniques and the quality and quantity of education imbibed by the educate can be known. But this is not true of informal education for there is no standard or measure in its case. It also does not provide the recipient with a certificate or a degree. Informal education is gradual process, for people learn a few things after years of experience. But the things learnt in this manner prove to be more valuable than all the degrees accumulated through formal education. Informal education is more general in nature.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL TYPE OF EDUCATION
1. This type of education is informal because formalities are observed here.
2. No conscious efforts are made either by the teacher or the taught.
3. It is in no way pre-planned activity.
4. It is incidental.
5. No formal goals are fixed up.
6. No formal means are used to attain the goals.
7. There are no fixed or appointed teachers.
8. Here a situation might crop up where student may teach a teacher something.
9. There is no prescribed curriculum and no time table is observed.
10. There is none who organize this type of education.
11. There is no fixed place for it.
12. This type of education is never completed as there is no fixed syllabus.
13. There are no examinations of any type.
14. It is all a natural way of teaching –leaving.
Example: 1. A person goes to the play ground for physical exercise and there comes across someone who tells him very good ways of utilizing leisure time.
Example: 2. Courteous manners, gentleness etc learnt even in a marketplace in a hotel or in ones sitting room talking with others constitute informal education.
AGENCIES OF INFORMAL EDUCATION
The major agencies of informal education are the following.
A) HOME OR FAMILY
This is most true of the family, for the family makes a sizeable contribution to the child’s education, irrespective of the quality of this education. As a agency of education family should perform the following duties.
1. PLACES OF AFFECTIONS:
Every home fundamentally is a piece of affections especially for the younger ones. The head of the family or the elderly person in the home is a source of affection for others. They have their lovers for the younger. It is a different story that now due to disintegration of families, some youngsters have stated showing hatred for the elders. Naturally in such circumstances, there is to be decrease of affections. Through the system of education, there is need of receiving good old tradition like adoring the elders.
2. MAKES SOCIAL:
Every home makes the child more and more social in nature. In the home, there is interaction between the different members of the family. In the street, there is interaction with the children coming from neighboring homes. It develops the qualities of mixing with others.
One is also able to modify one’s behavior in accordance with others in whose contact one comes. It is but natural   that children learn more from other children. So it is the peer-group that helps the child in becoming more and more social.
3. MAKES MORALLY SOUND:
The home teaches the child many things of morality. The child, is able to understand the importance of truth, honesty etc. All this is able to learn from the parents or the grand-parents. Besides, the company of good children also helps in this regard. Moral training is the basic function of the family.
4. IMPARTS EDUCATION:
The home educates the child directly or indirectly. The educated parents and other members of family who are educated are able to educate the younger’s directly. But in the case of uneducated parents, the home helps indirectly in educating them. Here education means all round developed of the child.
5. STATISTICS ECONOMICS NEEDS:
The home creates statistics economic needs of the child. Money is needed by the child for various activities. It is also needed for giving him right type of diet. All these facilities are provided by the parents. A good home makes earn money rightly and utilize it properly.
“Family is a well-knit economic unit”. In a good home, the child enjoys economic security. He finds himself free from any type of economic worries. All this helps the child have a balanced personality.
6. RECREATES:
Recreation is also important for the proper growth and development of the child. At home, there is provision of recreation. Radio, T.V or other instruments of recreation are used in the homes. They provide the required type of recreation to the child.
7. HELPS IN PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:
Parents are always careful about the health of their children. They try to provide the required type of diet. They inculcate among them the habits of cleanliness and sense of healthful living. They make the children work at the time of work and then allow them to play. Thus the home or the parents help in the proper physical growth and development of their children.
8. HELPS IN MENTAL DEVELOPMENT:
Full care is also taken at home for mental development of the children. Here mental development means development of mental power such as thinking, language development etc. The parents make efforts so that their children are able to use the mother tongue rightly in their expression. Intellectual development of this stage helps the children later on because their education largely depends upon it.
9. HELPS EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Emotional development is very important for the proper growth and development of the child. The parents at home help a good dual in this regard. The child learns at home about emotional stability. The home develops in the child healthy and positive emotions like sympathy, affection, courage etc. Only well adjusted home environment helps in this direction.
10. HELPS RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT:
Religion and religious beliefs refine the personality of a child. The basic foundation of religion and spiritual faith are laid down at home. In fact, family is the only institution where religious development of the child can be ensured. From home child learns the basic fundamentals of spirituality. From home he gets a concrete form of religion.
India being a secular country, the duty of parents to impart religious education to the children becomes too important. Only religious environment of the family develops the duty of every home to create peaceful atmospheres in order to enable the boys and girls to drive pleasure by staying at home.
B) SOCIETY OR COMMUNITY
Society performs a number of educational functions which are briefly explained below;
1. ESTABLISHES SCHOOLS:
The society establishes the schools, maintains them and glorifies them .It educates the children and enables them to stand on their own feet. Besides, it also helps in bringing all round development of the children.
2. MAINTAINS STANDARD OF THE SCHOOLS:
The society helps the schools in maintaining good standards. It fixes up standards with the help of higher controlling authorities and then it verifies with the help of school, board or university whether the students have attained the desired goals or not.
3. HELPS IN ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL:
The society creates proper environment in the school so as to bring about different types of development of the learner-physical, moral, social, cultural, academic etc. Thus it makes the individual a fit person for the society.
4. SETS UP AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION:
It is needed at different levels of education. Then it checks their appropriateness. It also corrects them, reflexes them and redefines them if need arises there to. 
5. PLANS NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION:
The society prepare national scheme of education keeping in view the needs and requirement of the people. It also tries to find out whether the system is according to the aspiration of the people.
6. MAKE PROVISION OF SUITABLE CURRICULUM:
The society takes the opinions of experts and makes provision of suitable curriculum where the learner should be able to grow and develop fully so as to achieve the target fixed up by the society.
7. SUPERVISION:
The society supervises the school and its various components with the purpose of bringing improvement in the school, teachers, students etc. Through regular supervision, it ensures proper and smooth functioning of the school. Thus it is also able to root out the ills and draw-backs of the school.
8. APPOINT COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES:
The society sets up commission and committees as per needs of the situations. The main purpose behind is overall improvement of the school.
9. PRESERVES TRADITIONS AND CONVENTIONS:
The society has its rich heritage, healthy traditions and conventions and it wants to preserve them. It does so by stabling museums art galleries. It does propagate good values through T.V, radio, News-papers, Magazines etc.
10. ENCOURAGES RESEARCH:
The society encourages research in various fields by supporting the financially so as to improve the teaching-learning environment of the school.
11. CO-ORDINATE DIFFERENT AGENCIES:
Society inters links school and home. It helps in making them realize that they can server many useful purposes. Schools exist but society makes them better and better. Home exists society tries to improve it. It provides them with guidance and thereby helps them do wonderful job for the betterment of the individuals. Surely this approach improves the home, improves the school and improves the society itself.
12. INCULCATES MORAL AND SPIRITUAL VALUES:
Society has in its store the cultural heritage of humanity. Moral and spiritual values are maintained by it. It tries to inculcate those values in the individuals. Honesty, sincerity, truth, simplicity of life and high thinking behaviors, hard working, fellow-feelings etc. are noble values. The society advocates and propagates these values among the masses.
C) STATE
State is also informal agency of education. The proper management of education is an important task of the state. Apart from school, family and society, state also educates as on as informal agency of education. People always learn something or other from the state without any definite rule, place or time. Briefly, the main duties of the state as an educational agency are given below.
·         Instead of taking the place of the individual or the family, the state should help in the development of both.
·         It is the duty of the state to establish its own schools and provide assistance to private schools.
·         State is responsible for the change in the form of schools according to needs.
·         State is to establish inter relationship among various agencies of education.
·         It has to establish relationship among various schools in order to avoid wastage so that higher standard of education may established.
·         It should prepare a list of minimum achievements for school and lay down broad guide-lines for them.
·         State should keep education free from local cries by allowing some local elements to participate in the process of education but subordinating them to the national system of education.
·         It should provide sound attitude to parents towards education.
·         Arrangement of free and universal education for a definite period is an important task of the state.
·         State is to take the responsibility of educational expenditure and   persuade other institutions for this task.
·         Proper arrangement of training for teachers is to be made by the       state so that the standard of education many not full.
·         State should give proper advice to educational institutions. State in expected to organize suitable committees and commissions for this purpose.
·         State should pay special attention to the security of nation’s culture.
·         State is expected to help inculcate feeling of duty to the nation in the minds of its citizens and it should contribute in the development of normal idea for social efficiency.
D) PEER GROUP
Peer in one who is equal in rank older boys and girls form groups of their peers called peer groups. As an agency, peer group seems insignificant but the hard fact in that it is a very significant one and it plays a very important role in education. In peer groups, there is better learning. Generally it is seen that what the student cannot learn from the teacher, the same thing he/she can learn easily and in a much better way in the peer group.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEER GROUP
§  There is no difference between the rank and profile of the students who are in one group.
§  They are free to take in any one of their colleagues and also vice-versa.
§  There in element of freedom and there is no fear of any soft.
§  They are able to give an outlet to their pent up feelings
§  When there is no suppression of feelings, mind works without any type of compulsion.
There is inborn type of motivation which ensures good LEARNING BY ALL IN THE GROUP.
FUNCTIONS OF THE PEER GROUP
1.      SOCIALIZES:
In the peer group, everybody learns how to behave with each other and how to live well in the group and how to make their group strong. Good interaction takes place there.
2.       MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR:
Peer group helps in modifying the behavior of the individuals of the group. The simple reason being that there is free and frank. In the self created environment, everybody comes out as better individual with modified behavior.
3.      WE- FEELING:
We-feelings are inculcated in the individual of the peer groups. The individuals feel that they belong to one group. The feel more secured. Fellow feelings are born in them. With their togetherness, they find themselves stronger.
4.      HELP IN ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT:
Unlike class room learning the peer group provides the individuals full freedom and more opportunities of mixing each other. They are able to learn together, they are able to play together. They are able to have better instruction with one another. All this helps in all round growth and development of the individuals.
5.      TEACH THEM TO WORK INDEPENDENTLY:
Peer groups instill in the individuals as way of life where they become self dependent.
E) MASS MEDIA
Media used for the masses to communicate something is known as mass media. Radio TV, Film News papers etc; serve the purpose of mass media. In our country, the chief faction of these media is informal education.
a) FILM
Although films have some other purpose to achieve, we can also learn something from them. Children learn many things from the films. People also listen to the message of the actors. Film can promote social welfare if they screen good stories and adopt techniques suiting the needs of society. Scientific and informative documentary films shown by other institutions are also very educative.
b) RADIO
In our daily life we learn something from radio programmer. We receive sufficient education from the speeches on different subjects delivered by the great scholar. Now radio program organizers sometime arrange for well planned education to be impacted to different age groups of people. Some programmers’ are especially meant for school children some for women-folk, some for teachers and so on. Sometimes, some education talk of some great person is relayed from all radio station. Radio does educate us informally.
c) TELEVISION
Children can use visual as well as auditory sense organs in enjoying TV programs which are not only source of recreation but also of education. TV educates us informally and sometimes TV education is more effective then school education.
d) PRESS
We get some new experience by reading daily news papers, weekly papers, fortnightly and monthly margarines, annual or half yearly journals and various bulletins.
F). OTHER AGENCIES
SPORTS:
Children are naturally interested in games. Adults are also interested in play. By means of games and sports feelings of co-operation honesty and love are developed in children. This is also an important informal agency of education.
LIBRARY AND READING ROOM:
Libraries and reading rooms provide education by making available various papers, journals, magazines, great reference books and books on many subjects for reference study.
SOCIAL EDUCATION CENTRE:
Under community development project social education centre have been established at village and mahallas of cities we informally receive education from these centers.
SCOUTING AND GIRL-GUIDING:
Scouting and girl-guiding programs provide education to boys and girls respectively. Both are informal agencies of education.
MUSEUMS:
Only a brief reference needs to be made to museums as an informal agency of education.
MERIT AND DEMERIT OF INFORMAL EDUCATION:
MERITS:
a)     There are no strains of any type on the mind of the learner.
b)     It is a natural way of teaching learning
c)      The learner is self-motivated in process of learning.
d)     Most of the learnt things are situational as they are learnt in one situation o the other. So they are remembered for a long time.
e)     In this type of education there is dependence on rote learning.
DE-MERITS
a)     It does not give much confidence to the learner. In spite of good knowledge, the learner may feel inferiority complete in a group of highly educated person.
b)     Here education is received in the absence of a so called ‘guru’- the teacher. One may not learn the right things.
c)      Whatever is expected to be learnt in the company of equal age group that is missed here? Class fellow feeling, discipline, good habits, attitudes etc. May not be acquired properly and rightly.






CONCLUSION
The truth is that none of the above discussed agencies is complete in itself. Each gives a certain type of education which is only a part of the whole. In reality both formal and informal agencies of education are mutually complementary and supplementary for the complete and whole some development of personality. Thus, both the agencies should co-operate in educating the child. There must be a balance of working by both the agencies for the total development of the child. No one is to be neglected as both complete the desired development.
INFORMAL EDUCATION ROLE OF DIFFERENT AGENCIES

INFORMAL EDUCATION ROLE OF DIFFERENT AGENCIES



INTRODUCTION
                     Education is a thought full process by which the inner powers of the individual are developed. Education is verb broad in it true sense and is not confined to school experiences. But in a narrow sense education is a well-planned process. Education may be defined as a purposive conscious or unconscious psychological, sociological, scientific and philosophical process which brings about the development of the individual to the fullest extent and also the maximum development of society in such a way that both enjoy maximum happiness and prosperity. T. Reymont has rightly remarked –“Education is that process of development in which consists the passage of human being from infancy to maturity, the process whereby he adapts himself gradually in various ways to his physical, social and spiritual environment.”
There are three important types of education,
EDUCATION
                                                
Formal      Non-formal    Informal
Formal education is that education where according to predetermined aims and methods of teaching, definite dozes of knowledge are thrust into the mind of a child at a specific place during a set duration of time by a particular individual.
E.g.  Schools, universities etc.
 Informal education is natural and incidental. There are no predetermined aims, curricula, methods, teachers and places where   children receive informal education:
E.g.: Family, community, peer groups, etc.                       
Non-formal education is in-between the formal and informal types of education. It is midway because it is partly formal and partly informal it is both intentional and incidental.
E.g. Open school, open universities, correspondence course etc.
Sir Godfrey Thomas has written, “The whole of environment is the instrument of man’s education in the wildest sense. But in that environment certain factors are distinguishable as more particularly concerned, the home, the school, the church, press, the vacation, public life, amusement and hobbies”. Generally, of course, the process of education continues from birth to death, but some specific institution play more important part in it. All of these institutions are the agencies of education, and they include all these factors, bases, places or institutions, which have an educative influence upon the Child. Hence, the institutions, agencies and bases of education mean the same thing, and should be interpreted as such. Here are discussing about informal education and its agencies only.

INFOMAL EDUCATION
Education for no formalities are observed is known as informal type of education. In this type of education there is modification of the behavior of the learner but no conscious efforts are made for it. Whatever it is learnt here is not preplanned. It is natural and incidental. Here neither the teacher nor the learner is conscious of the process of teaching learning. In this type of education there are no pre-determined aims, no definite curriculum no well thought methods of teaching, no qualified and trained teachers and no definite place of education. Here education is received by the company of friends, relatives, community etc. whatever as education is received plays a very important and significant role in the life of educate. Informal education complements the formal education which has a particular pattern. Education of this kind has no specific time or place at which it is provided. Even the educator is not fixed. All fixed syllabi, rules, formalities are absent from it. Education of this kind in the education one receives while playing in field, talking to family members in the house, roaming around somewhere, in fact everywhere. This kind of education never comes to an end. And it teaches the individual more than he ever learns through his formal education. A child learns many things when he comes in contact with new people. He discovers many new words when he goes to new places. This education that he receives cannot be evaluated as formal education can. Format education can be evaluated by some specific techniques and the quality and quantity of education imbibed by the educate can be known. But this is not true of informal education for there is no standard or measure in its case. It also does not provide the recipient with a certificate or a degree. Informal education is gradual process, for people learn a few things after years of experience. But the things learnt in this manner prove to be more valuable than all the degrees accumulated through formal education. Informal education is more general in nature.
CHARACTERISTICS OF INFORMAL TYPE OF EDUCATION
1. This type of education is informal because formalities are observed here.
2. No conscious efforts are made either by the teacher or the taught.
3. It is in no way pre-planned activity.
4. It is incidental.
5. No formal goals are fixed up.
6. No formal means are used to attain the goals.
7. There are no fixed or appointed teachers.
8. Here a situation might crop up where student may teach a teacher something.
9. There is no prescribed curriculum and no time table is observed.
10. There is none who organize this type of education.
11. There is no fixed place for it.
12. This type of education is never completed as there is no fixed syllabus.
13. There are no examinations of any type.
14. It is all a natural way of teaching –leaving.
Example: 1. A person goes to the play ground for physical exercise and there comes across someone who tells him very good ways of utilizing leisure time.
Example: 2. Courteous manners, gentleness etc learnt even in a marketplace in a hotel or in ones sitting room talking with others constitute informal education.
AGENCIES OF INFORMAL EDUCATION
The major agencies of informal education are the following.
A) HOME OR FAMILY
This is most true of the family, for the family makes a sizeable contribution to the child’s education, irrespective of the quality of this education. As a agency of education family should perform the following duties.
1. PLACES OF AFFECTIONS:
Every home fundamentally is a piece of affections especially for the younger ones. The head of the family or the elderly person in the home is a source of affection for others. They have their lovers for the younger. It is a different story that now due to disintegration of families, some youngsters have stated showing hatred for the elders. Naturally in such circumstances, there is to be decrease of affections. Through the system of education, there is need of receiving good old tradition like adoring the elders.
2. MAKES SOCIAL:
Every home makes the child more and more social in nature. In the home, there is interaction between the different members of the family. In the street, there is interaction with the children coming from neighboring homes. It develops the qualities of mixing with others.
One is also able to modify one’s behavior in accordance with others in whose contact one comes. It is but natural   that children learn more from other children. So it is the peer-group that helps the child in becoming more and more social.
3. MAKES MORALLY SOUND:
The home teaches the child many things of morality. The child, is able to understand the importance of truth, honesty etc. All this is able to learn from the parents or the grand-parents. Besides, the company of good children also helps in this regard. Moral training is the basic function of the family.
4. IMPARTS EDUCATION:
The home educates the child directly or indirectly. The educated parents and other members of family who are educated are able to educate the younger’s directly. But in the case of uneducated parents, the home helps indirectly in educating them. Here education means all round developed of the child.
5. STATISTICS ECONOMICS NEEDS:
The home creates statistics economic needs of the child. Money is needed by the child for various activities. It is also needed for giving him right type of diet. All these facilities are provided by the parents. A good home makes earn money rightly and utilize it properly.
“Family is a well-knit economic unit”. In a good home, the child enjoys economic security. He finds himself free from any type of economic worries. All this helps the child have a balanced personality.
6. RECREATES:
Recreation is also important for the proper growth and development of the child. At home, there is provision of recreation. Radio, T.V or other instruments of recreation are used in the homes. They provide the required type of recreation to the child.
7. HELPS IN PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT:
Parents are always careful about the health of their children. They try to provide the required type of diet. They inculcate among them the habits of cleanliness and sense of healthful living. They make the children work at the time of work and then allow them to play. Thus the home or the parents help in the proper physical growth and development of their children.
8. HELPS IN MENTAL DEVELOPMENT:
Full care is also taken at home for mental development of the children. Here mental development means development of mental power such as thinking, language development etc. The parents make efforts so that their children are able to use the mother tongue rightly in their expression. Intellectual development of this stage helps the children later on because their education largely depends upon it.
9. HELPS EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT:
Emotional development is very important for the proper growth and development of the child. The parents at home help a good dual in this regard. The child learns at home about emotional stability. The home develops in the child healthy and positive emotions like sympathy, affection, courage etc. Only well adjusted home environment helps in this direction.
10. HELPS RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT:
Religion and religious beliefs refine the personality of a child. The basic foundation of religion and spiritual faith are laid down at home. In fact, family is the only institution where religious development of the child can be ensured. From home child learns the basic fundamentals of spirituality. From home he gets a concrete form of religion.
India being a secular country, the duty of parents to impart religious education to the children becomes too important. Only religious environment of the family develops the duty of every home to create peaceful atmospheres in order to enable the boys and girls to drive pleasure by staying at home.
B) SOCIETY OR COMMUNITY
Society performs a number of educational functions which are briefly explained below;
1. ESTABLISHES SCHOOLS:
The society establishes the schools, maintains them and glorifies them .It educates the children and enables them to stand on their own feet. Besides, it also helps in bringing all round development of the children.
2. MAINTAINS STANDARD OF THE SCHOOLS:
The society helps the schools in maintaining good standards. It fixes up standards with the help of higher controlling authorities and then it verifies with the help of school, board or university whether the students have attained the desired goals or not.
3. HELPS IN ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL:
The society creates proper environment in the school so as to bring about different types of development of the learner-physical, moral, social, cultural, academic etc. Thus it makes the individual a fit person for the society.
4. SETS UP AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION:
It is needed at different levels of education. Then it checks their appropriateness. It also corrects them, reflexes them and redefines them if need arises there to. 
5. PLANS NATIONAL SYSTEM OF EDUCATION:
The society prepare national scheme of education keeping in view the needs and requirement of the people. It also tries to find out whether the system is according to the aspiration of the people.
6. MAKE PROVISION OF SUITABLE CURRICULUM:
The society takes the opinions of experts and makes provision of suitable curriculum where the learner should be able to grow and develop fully so as to achieve the target fixed up by the society.
7. SUPERVISION:
The society supervises the school and its various components with the purpose of bringing improvement in the school, teachers, students etc. Through regular supervision, it ensures proper and smooth functioning of the school. Thus it is also able to root out the ills and draw-backs of the school.
8. APPOINT COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES:
The society sets up commission and committees as per needs of the situations. The main purpose behind is overall improvement of the school.
9. PRESERVES TRADITIONS AND CONVENTIONS:
The society has its rich heritage, healthy traditions and conventions and it wants to preserve them. It does so by stabling museums art galleries. It does propagate good values through T.V, radio, News-papers, Magazines etc.
10. ENCOURAGES RESEARCH:
The society encourages research in various fields by supporting the financially so as to improve the teaching-learning environment of the school.
11. CO-ORDINATE DIFFERENT AGENCIES:
Society inters links school and home. It helps in making them realize that they can server many useful purposes. Schools exist but society makes them better and better. Home exists society tries to improve it. It provides them with guidance and thereby helps them do wonderful job for the betterment of the individuals. Surely this approach improves the home, improves the school and improves the society itself.
12. INCULCATES MORAL AND SPIRITUAL VALUES:
Society has in its store the cultural heritage of humanity. Moral and spiritual values are maintained by it. It tries to inculcate those values in the individuals. Honesty, sincerity, truth, simplicity of life and high thinking behaviors, hard working, fellow-feelings etc. are noble values. The society advocates and propagates these values among the masses.
C) STATE
State is also informal agency of education. The proper management of education is an important task of the state. Apart from school, family and society, state also educates as on as informal agency of education. People always learn something or other from the state without any definite rule, place or time. Briefly, the main duties of the state as an educational agency are given below.
·         Instead of taking the place of the individual or the family, the state should help in the development of both.
·         It is the duty of the state to establish its own schools and provide assistance to private schools.
·         State is responsible for the change in the form of schools according to needs.
·         State is to establish inter relationship among various agencies of education.
·         It has to establish relationship among various schools in order to avoid wastage so that higher standard of education may established.
·         It should prepare a list of minimum achievements for school and lay down broad guide-lines for them.
·         State should keep education free from local cries by allowing some local elements to participate in the process of education but subordinating them to the national system of education.
·         It should provide sound attitude to parents towards education.
·         Arrangement of free and universal education for a definite period is an important task of the state.
·         State is to take the responsibility of educational expenditure and   persuade other institutions for this task.
·         Proper arrangement of training for teachers is to be made by the       state so that the standard of education many not full.
·         State should give proper advice to educational institutions. State in expected to organize suitable committees and commissions for this purpose.
·         State should pay special attention to the security of nation’s culture.
·         State is expected to help inculcate feeling of duty to the nation in the minds of its citizens and it should contribute in the development of normal idea for social efficiency.
D) PEER GROUP
Peer in one who is equal in rank older boys and girls form groups of their peers called peer groups. As an agency, peer group seems insignificant but the hard fact in that it is a very significant one and it plays a very important role in education. In peer groups, there is better learning. Generally it is seen that what the student cannot learn from the teacher, the same thing he/she can learn easily and in a much better way in the peer group.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEER GROUP
§  There is no difference between the rank and profile of the students who are in one group.
§  They are free to take in any one of their colleagues and also vice-versa.
§  There in element of freedom and there is no fear of any soft.
§  They are able to give an outlet to their pent up feelings
§  When there is no suppression of feelings, mind works without any type of compulsion.
There is inborn type of motivation which ensures good LEARNING BY ALL IN THE GROUP.
FUNCTIONS OF THE PEER GROUP
1.      SOCIALIZES:
In the peer group, everybody learns how to behave with each other and how to live well in the group and how to make their group strong. Good interaction takes place there.
2.       MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOR:
Peer group helps in modifying the behavior of the individuals of the group. The simple reason being that there is free and frank. In the self created environment, everybody comes out as better individual with modified behavior.
3.      WE- FEELING:
We-feelings are inculcated in the individual of the peer groups. The individuals feel that they belong to one group. The feel more secured. Fellow feelings are born in them. With their togetherness, they find themselves stronger.
4.      HELP IN ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT:
Unlike class room learning the peer group provides the individuals full freedom and more opportunities of mixing each other. They are able to learn together, they are able to play together. They are able to have better instruction with one another. All this helps in all round growth and development of the individuals.
5.      TEACH THEM TO WORK INDEPENDENTLY:
Peer groups instill in the individuals as way of life where they become self dependent.
E) MASS MEDIA
Media used for the masses to communicate something is known as mass media. Radio TV, Film News papers etc; serve the purpose of mass media. In our country, the chief faction of these media is informal education.
a) FILM
Although films have some other purpose to achieve, we can also learn something from them. Children learn many things from the films. People also listen to the message of the actors. Film can promote social welfare if they screen good stories and adopt techniques suiting the needs of society. Scientific and informative documentary films shown by other institutions are also very educative.
b) RADIO
In our daily life we learn something from radio programmer. We receive sufficient education from the speeches on different subjects delivered by the great scholar. Now radio program organizers sometime arrange for well planned education to be impacted to different age groups of people. Some programmers’ are especially meant for school children some for women-folk, some for teachers and so on. Sometimes, some education talk of some great person is relayed from all radio station. Radio does educate us informally.
c) TELEVISION
Children can use visual as well as auditory sense organs in enjoying TV programs which are not only source of recreation but also of education. TV educates us informally and sometimes TV education is more effective then school education.
d) PRESS
We get some new experience by reading daily news papers, weekly papers, fortnightly and monthly margarines, annual or half yearly journals and various bulletins.
F). OTHER AGENCIES
SPORTS:
Children are naturally interested in games. Adults are also interested in play. By means of games and sports feelings of co-operation honesty and love are developed in children. This is also an important informal agency of education.
LIBRARY AND READING ROOM:
Libraries and reading rooms provide education by making available various papers, journals, magazines, great reference books and books on many subjects for reference study.
SOCIAL EDUCATION CENTRE:
Under community development project social education centre have been established at village and mahallas of cities we informally receive education from these centers.
SCOUTING AND GIRL-GUIDING:
Scouting and girl-guiding programs provide education to boys and girls respectively. Both are informal agencies of education.
MUSEUMS:
Only a brief reference needs to be made to museums as an informal agency of education.
MERIT AND DEMERIT OF INFORMAL EDUCATION:
MERITS:
a)     There are no strains of any type on the mind of the learner.
b)     It is a natural way of teaching learning
c)      The learner is self-motivated in process of learning.
d)     Most of the learnt things are situational as they are learnt in one situation o the other. So they are remembered for a long time.
e)     In this type of education there is dependence on rote learning.
DE-MERITS
a)     It does not give much confidence to the learner. In spite of good knowledge, the learner may feel inferiority complete in a group of highly educated person.
b)     Here education is received in the absence of a so called ‘guru’- the teacher. One may not learn the right things.
c)      Whatever is expected to be learnt in the company of equal age group that is missed here? Class fellow feeling, discipline, good habits, attitudes etc. May not be acquired properly and rightly.






CONCLUSION
The truth is that none of the above discussed agencies is complete in itself. Each gives a certain type of education which is only a part of the whole. In reality both formal and informal agencies of education are mutually complementary and supplementary for the complete and whole some development of personality. Thus, both the agencies should co-operate in educating the child. There must be a balance of working by both the agencies for the total development of the child. No one is to be neglected as both complete the desired development.