Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts
INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.

FORMAL EDUCATION AND ALTERNATIVES OF FORMAL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.


INTRODUCTION
The core mission of higher education is to educate, train, undertake, research and provide service to the community. The Higher Education in India is the Second largest system in the world. It has witnessed many fold increase in its institutional capacity since independence- from 1950 to 2012, the number of universities from 20 to about 431, colleges from 500 to 20,677 and teachers from 15, to 5.05 Lakhs with student enrollment from 1.00 lakh to over 116.12 Lakhs. Then to protect the quality of the higher education institutions, the National Policy Mission propose the Accreditation unit.  Based on this, University Grants Commission (UGC), under section 12 CCC of the UGC Act (Act 3 of 1956), established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) as an Autonomous Institution on 16 September 1994 with Registered Office at Bangalore.
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council is in its 18th year of operation now. Seventeen years may not mean a long time in the annals of Indian higher education, which may data back to the ancient period of ‘Nalanda’ and ‘Takshashila’, but it can certainly be a sufficiently long period for a National Quality Assurance Agency to take stock of its policies and practices. The decade-old history of NAAC is a story of many triumphs and tribulations. Addressing the quality concerns of world’s second largest higher education system has meant, adding several dimensions to the experiences of quality assurance initiatives of NAAC. Quality assurance models, as with higher education systems themselves, are designed to fulfill long- term collective needs. The quality assurance agencies are obliged to face enduring questions such as defining and maintaining standards of quality and equally important need to keep their methodologies up- to –date and responsive to shifting societal needs. The important actions and methodologies of NAAC are explained here.

QUALITY movement in Indian HIGHER EDUCATION
The British Standard Institution (BSI) defines quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” (BSI, 1991). As teachers, principals, heads of departments and planners and policy makers in education, you may be having this question in your mind – why worry about quality? This is because of the following reasons:
1. COMPETITION: - We are entering a new regime, where competition among educational institutions for students and funds will be highly significant. In order to survive in such a situation, educational institutions need to worry about their quality.
2. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: - Students, parents or sponsoring agencies as customers of the educational institutions are now highly conscious of their rights or getting value for their money and time spent.
3. MAINTAINING STANDARDS: - As educational institutions, we are always concerned about setting our own standard and maintaining it continuously year after year. In order to maintain the standard, we should consciously make efforts to improve quality of the educational transactions as well as the educational provisions and facilities.
4. ACCOUNTABILITY: Every institution is accountable to its stakeholders in terms of the funds (public or private) used on it.
5. IMPROVE EMPLOYEE MORALE ANDMOTIVATION: Your concern for quality as an institution will improve the morale and motivation of the staff in performing their duties and responsibilities
6. CREDIBILITY, PRESTIGE AND STATUS: If you are concerned about quality, continuously and not once in a while, it will bring in credibility to individuals and your institution because of consistency leading to prestige, status and brand value.
7. IMAGE AND VISIBILITY: Quality institutions have the capacity to attract better stakeholder support, like getting merited students from far and near, increased donations/ grants from philanthropists/ funding agencies and higher employer interest for easy placement of graduates.
The important quality movements in India are explained below:
The University Grants Commission (UGC) with its statutory powers is expected to maintain quality in Indian higher education institutions. Section 12 of the UGC Act of 1956 requires UGC to be responsible for “the determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examinations and research in universities”. To fulfill this mandate, the UGC has been continuously developing mechanisms to monitor quality in colleges and universities directly or indirectly. In order to improve quality, it has established national research facilities, and Academic Staff Colleges to re-orient teachers and provide refresher courses in subject areas. The UGC also conducts the National Eligibility Test (NET) for setting high standards of teaching. Various committees and commissions on education over the years have emphasized directly or indirectly the need for improvement and recognition of quality in Indian higher education system. The concept of autonomous colleges as recommended by Kothari Commission (1964-66) has its roots in the concept of quality improvement. Since the adoption of the National Policy on Education (1968), there has been a tremendous expansion of educational opportunities at all levels, particularly in higher education. With the expansion of educational institutions, came the concern for quality. The constitutional amendment in 1976 brought education to the concurrent list making the central government more responsible for quality improvement. The New Education Policy (1986) emphasized on the recognition and reward of excellence in performance of institutions and checking of sub-standard institutions. Consequently, the Programme of Action (PoA) in 1986 stated, “As a part of its responsibility for the maintenance and promotion of standards of education, the UGC will, to begin with, take the initiative to establish an Accreditation and Assessment Council as an autonomous body”. After eight years of continuous and serious deliberations, the UGC established NAAC at Bangalore as a registered autonomous body on 16th September 1994 under the Societies Registration Act of 1860.
 HISTORY OF NAAC
The milestones in the emergence of NAAC can be identified as follows:
1986: UGC constituted a 15-member committee on Accreditation and Assessment Council under the chairmanship of Dr. Vasant Gowarikar.
1987-1990: Nine regional seminars and a national seminar organized to debate Gowarikar Committee report.
1990: Dr Sukumaran Nair’s project report submitted to UGC that reflected a consensus to have an accreditation agency accountable to UGC.
1992: The revised New Education Policy reiterated all round improvement of educational institutions.
1994: Prof. G. Ram Reddy committee appointed to finalize the memorandum of association and rules and regulation of the accreditation board (July 1994).
1994: National Assessment and Accreditation Council established at Bangalore (September 1994).
VISION AND MISSON
VISION: - To make quality the quality defining element of higher education in India through a combination of self and external quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance initiatives.

MISSION

v  To arrange for periodic assessment and accreditation of institutions of higher education or units thereof, or specific academic programmes or projects;
v  To stimulate the academic environment for promotion of quality of teaching-learning and research in higher education institutions;
v  To encourage self-evaluation, accountability, autonomy and innovations in higher education;
v  To undertake quality-related research studies, consultancy and training programmes, and
v  To collaborate with other stakeholders of higher education for quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance.  
Guided by its vision and striving to achieve its mission, the NAAC primarily assesses the quality of institutions of higher education that volunteer for the process, through an internationally accepted methodology.
 VALUE FRAMEWORK
To promote cognizance developments and the role of higher education in society, NAAC (2004) has developed five core values:
1. Contributing to national development
2. Fostering global competencies among students
3. Inculcating a value system in students
4. Promoting the use of technology
5. Quest for excellence
Governance Structure
NAAC’s working is governed by the General Council (GC) and the Executive Committee (EC) on which University Grants Commission (UGC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Association of Indian Universities (AIU), Universities, Colleges and other professional institutions are represented. Senior academics and educational administrators are nominated as members on these two bodies.
President- General Council: - Prof. Ved Prakash has held eminent positions in a number of premier organizations dealing with Higher education, School education, and Personnel selection.
Chairman- Executive Committee: -Clause 19(b) of the Rules of NAAC- Every meeting of the executive committee shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the executive committee and in his/her absence by the Vice Chairman of UGC, and in the absence of both the senior most member of the Executive Committee.
COMMITTEES
NAAC functions through its General Council (GC) and Executive Committee (EC) and other academic, advisory and administrative sub committees. NAAC draws its expertise from senior academics of undoubted integrity from all over India.
Important committees under NAAC are as follows:
1. General Council
2. Executive Committee
3. Finance Committee
4. Building Committee
5. Appeals Committee
6. Purchase Committee
7. CRIEQA Committee
Instrumentation and Methodology
A new methodology was introduced in April 2007, as per this methodology, the higher education institutions are assessed and accredited in a two step approach.
In the first step, the institution is required to seek Institutional Eligibility for Quality Assessment (IEQA) and the second step is the assessment and accreditation of the institution. NAAC has identified seven criteria-Curricular Aspects, Teaching, Learning and Education, Researches, Consultancy and Extension, Infrastructure and learning Resources, Student support and Progression, Governance and Leadership and  Innovative practices.
The methodology of NAAC is evolved over 15 years and has undergone several changes based on feedback from stakeholders to match pace with changing higher education scenario. In keeping with this tradition NAAC has initiated stakeholder consultation process of a long time also having contributed to the evolution of NAAC.
The Assessment and Accreditation is in three dimensions which are explained below:
1. ON-LINE SUBMISSION OF A LETTER
2. PREPARATION OF SELF STUDY REPORT” – The first and most important step in the process of assessment is the submission of the self study report to NAAC. NAAC believes that an institution that really understands itself- its strengths and weaknesses, its potentials and limitations. Self- study is thus envisaged as the backbone of the process of assessment. NAAC insists that the report contain two parts. Part I may contain data about the institution under the seven criteria for assessment for which NAAC has developed a format. Based on the data collected in part I, the institution is expected to analyze its functioning and performance, and self-analysis becomes part II of the self- study report.
3. PEER TEAM VISIT: -The selection of team members and their subsequent visit to the unit of accreditation are stages in a process that begins as soon as an institution submits its self- study report. The visit by the peer team gives the institution an opportunity to discuss and find ways of consolidating and improving the academic environment. As the first step to constitute the peer team, NAAC identifies a panel, from the extensive database of experts, with national- level representation and consults the institution about any justifiable reservations it may have regarding any member of the panel. During the on-site visit, keeping in mind philosophy of NAAC, the peer team does an objective assessment of the quality of education offered in the institution through three major activities- visiting departments and facilities, interacting with various constituencies of the institution and checking documentary evidences.
4. GRADING AND CERTIFICATION: - The major role of the peer team is to provide the institutional score and the detailed assessment report. The rest of the process is to be performed by NAAC as directed by the executive committee. If overall score is not less than 55%, the institution obtains the accredited status. Accredited institutions are graded on a five- point scale with the following scale values:
GRADE
INSTITUTIONAL SCORE
A++
95-100
A+
90-95
A
85-90
B++
80-85
B+
75-80
B
70-75
C++
65-70
C+
60-65
C
55-60
Institutions, which do not attain the minimum 55% points for accreditation, would also be intimated and notified indicating that the institution is “assessed and found not qualified for accreditation”. After EC’s decision, the institution is informed of the overall grade along with the criterion- wise scores and the information is included on the website.     `
Quality Initiatives by NAAc
1. Quality Sustenance and Promotion by sensitizing institutions to the concepts such as credit transfer, student mobility and mutual   recognition
2. Establishment of State-Level Quality Assurance Co-ordination Committees (SLQACCs) in different States
3. Networking among accredited institutions in order to promote exchange of "Best/Innovative Practices”
4. Dissemination of Best/Innovative Practices through seminar/workshops and NAAC publications
5. Financial support to accredited institutions for conducting seminars/conferences/ workshops etc. on quality issues in Higher Education
6. Establishment of Internal Quality Assurance Cells
7. State-wise analysis of Accreditation Reports for policy initiatives
8. Promoting the concept of Lead College and Cluster of Colleges for Quality initiatives
9. Research grants for faculty of accredited institutions to execute projects on different themes / case studies
10. Initiation of student involvement for quality enhancement
11. Developing international linkages for mutual recognition through accreditation
Role of NAAC in changing scenario
Role of NAAC in the changing scenario of higher education needs to be redefined with respect to recognition cum accreditation, programme accreditation, national level ranking of universities, preparation of national benchmarks, national and international database, research and development centre, developing reports and policy papers to Government of India (GOI), accreditation of multiple accreditation agencies, recognition of regional/state level accreditation bodies etc.
Assessment and Accreditation by NAAC may be made mandatory for all higher education institutions of the country.
·                     NAAC may start programme accreditation
·                     Ranking of institutions may not be very much relevant when compared to grading
·                     All accreditation agencies including NAAC are to be accredited once in three years.
·                     While NAAC could be accredited by recognized international accreditation bodies, NAAC could perform this function for all the multiple accreditation agencies getting recognized by Government of India (GOI).
·                     NAAC grading and duration of accreditation may be linked and longer period of accreditation may be considered for the third cycle of institutional accreditation.
·                     NAAC needs to continue to be an Apex Assessment and Accreditation body for higher education institution, in the country providing vision and leadership.
NAAC suggestions
NAAC suggestions for overall development of the higher educational institutions, given below;
1. Since the state Govt. is deputing a large number of teachers for undergoing B.Ed programme, this is making the classes a bit crowded.
2.  Further, the Govt. colleges in the state are under the dual control of the University on one side and the Govt. on the other. Would it be possible for the Govt. & the University to make these colleges as constituent colleges of the University, thus paving the way for their better growth & development?
3. In view of the increased number of seats & diversification of courses, the college needs to have more number of teachers, especially in languages.
4. Laboratory facility needs to be enriched and expanded.
5. College should have a well equipped language lab, especially in view of the fact that every B.Ed Trainee opts for one language.
6. The college caters to the academic needs of the students who came from far off areas like Kargil and Ladakh; it needs to have hostels for boys and girls students.
7. As internship & practice of teaching are separately shown in the syllabus, internship needs to be streamlined & broad based.
8. Provision of some merit cum means scholarships need to be made for students from weaker section of society in view of the trend of increase in fee structure every year.
9. The suggestions put forth by the faculty to the University that the Project work should not be group work, needs immediate attention to avoid discrimination.
10. The Computer lab should be expanded, have more qualified Teachers; Faculty improvement programme should be strengthened.
Challenges ahead in higher education
The recent developments mainly globalization of education and the extensive use of educational technology have made the issue of quality measurement even more complex. The quality assurance systems have to constantly modify their procedure to address a growing variety of open and distance learning opportunities, which is stimulated by the use of information technologies. The review procedures developed for conventional system are hardly sufficient for electronic delivery methods, which has a wider reach.
A large number of institutions are offering distance education programmes. They use multimedia strategies, enroll higher number of students of heterogeneous backgrounds and differ considerably in their capacities to use electronic media and delivery infrastructure. The development has serious implications for quality assurance agencies.
A similar concern arises in the context of international students’ mobility due to globalization of education. When student enroll in other countries of foreign universities offering programmes in the students home country, the study plans must be evaluated to establish equivalence of their degree programmes.
The emergence of private higher education institution is also a greater concern to maintain quality and standard. Privatization creates little problem but the commercialization of self financing institutions create lot of problems for maintaining quality as making profit is their main concern. They run the institution without well qualified staff, needed infrastructure, student facilities, research etc. In such type of institutions, the relationship between the capacity to offer quality programmes and the scale of delivery of services is hard to establish. Because of the internationalization of education, the solution to the major issues and problems concerning quality assurance should be sought through co-operation among institutions and countries. Therefore, global effort is needed to deal with the challenge to quality assurance.
CONCLUSION
            An Internal Quality Assurance Cell has to play crucial role in protecting the quality of education service in India. The establishment of this cell is a mandatory task before every higher education institution that is planning to go for NAAC accreditation. Educational Institution, NAAC, AICTE, UGC and state and central governments has to impose certain kind of restrictions on every higher education institution in quality aspects of the service delivery which will place them in certain pressure in different quality dimensions. Now everybody has realized the importance of quality deliverables in this sector to protect the local institutions from the foreign institutions which has already entered into the country and received prominent response from the prospective students’. If our higher education institutions and regulatory bodies failed to maintain quality aspects in delivering the quality education service; those institutions definitely will disappear from the education map of India. Therefore sustaining quality in this crucial sector which will mould the future of our upcoming generations is a prime responsibility of our education system which will be possible only through continuous monitoring with the support of Internal Quality Assurance Cell of every Higher Education Institution.

ROLE OF NAAC IN PROMOTING QUALITY ON HIGHER EDUCATION



INTRODUCTION
The core mission of higher education is to educate, train, undertake, research and provide service to the community. The Higher Education in India is the Second largest system in the world. It has witnessed many fold increase in its institutional capacity since independence- from 1950 to 2012, the number of universities from 20 to about 431, colleges from 500 to 20,677 and teachers from 15, to 5.05 Lakhs with student enrollment from 1.00 lakh to over 116.12 Lakhs. Then to protect the quality of the higher education institutions, the National Policy Mission propose the Accreditation unit.  Based on this, University Grants Commission (UGC), under section 12 CCC of the UGC Act (Act 3 of 1956), established the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) as an Autonomous Institution on 16 September 1994 with Registered Office at Bangalore.
The National Assessment and Accreditation Council is in its 18th year of operation now. Seventeen years may not mean a long time in the annals of Indian higher education, which may data back to the ancient period of ‘Nalanda’ and ‘Takshashila’, but it can certainly be a sufficiently long period for a National Quality Assurance Agency to take stock of its policies and practices. The decade-old history of NAAC is a story of many triumphs and tribulations. Addressing the quality concerns of world’s second largest higher education system has meant, adding several dimensions to the experiences of quality assurance initiatives of NAAC. Quality assurance models, as with higher education systems themselves, are designed to fulfill long- term collective needs. The quality assurance agencies are obliged to face enduring questions such as defining and maintaining standards of quality and equally important need to keep their methodologies up- to –date and responsive to shifting societal needs. The important actions and methodologies of NAAC are explained here.

QUALITY movement in Indian HIGHER EDUCATION
The British Standard Institution (BSI) defines quality as “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” (BSI, 1991). As teachers, principals, heads of departments and planners and policy makers in education, you may be having this question in your mind – why worry about quality? This is because of the following reasons:
1. COMPETITION: - We are entering a new regime, where competition among educational institutions for students and funds will be highly significant. In order to survive in such a situation, educational institutions need to worry about their quality.
2. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: - Students, parents or sponsoring agencies as customers of the educational institutions are now highly conscious of their rights or getting value for their money and time spent.
3. MAINTAINING STANDARDS: - As educational institutions, we are always concerned about setting our own standard and maintaining it continuously year after year. In order to maintain the standard, we should consciously make efforts to improve quality of the educational transactions as well as the educational provisions and facilities.
4. ACCOUNTABILITY: Every institution is accountable to its stakeholders in terms of the funds (public or private) used on it.
5. IMPROVE EMPLOYEE MORALE ANDMOTIVATION: Your concern for quality as an institution will improve the morale and motivation of the staff in performing their duties and responsibilities
6. CREDIBILITY, PRESTIGE AND STATUS: If you are concerned about quality, continuously and not once in a while, it will bring in credibility to individuals and your institution because of consistency leading to prestige, status and brand value.
7. IMAGE AND VISIBILITY: Quality institutions have the capacity to attract better stakeholder support, like getting merited students from far and near, increased donations/ grants from philanthropists/ funding agencies and higher employer interest for easy placement of graduates.
The important quality movements in India are explained below:
The University Grants Commission (UGC) with its statutory powers is expected to maintain quality in Indian higher education institutions. Section 12 of the UGC Act of 1956 requires UGC to be responsible for “the determination and maintenance of standards of teaching, examinations and research in universities”. To fulfill this mandate, the UGC has been continuously developing mechanisms to monitor quality in colleges and universities directly or indirectly. In order to improve quality, it has established national research facilities, and Academic Staff Colleges to re-orient teachers and provide refresher courses in subject areas. The UGC also conducts the National Eligibility Test (NET) for setting high standards of teaching. Various committees and commissions on education over the years have emphasized directly or indirectly the need for improvement and recognition of quality in Indian higher education system. The concept of autonomous colleges as recommended by Kothari Commission (1964-66) has its roots in the concept of quality improvement. Since the adoption of the National Policy on Education (1968), there has been a tremendous expansion of educational opportunities at all levels, particularly in higher education. With the expansion of educational institutions, came the concern for quality. The constitutional amendment in 1976 brought education to the concurrent list making the central government more responsible for quality improvement. The New Education Policy (1986) emphasized on the recognition and reward of excellence in performance of institutions and checking of sub-standard institutions. Consequently, the Programme of Action (PoA) in 1986 stated, “As a part of its responsibility for the maintenance and promotion of standards of education, the UGC will, to begin with, take the initiative to establish an Accreditation and Assessment Council as an autonomous body”. After eight years of continuous and serious deliberations, the UGC established NAAC at Bangalore as a registered autonomous body on 16th September 1994 under the Societies Registration Act of 1860.
 HISTORY OF NAAC
The milestones in the emergence of NAAC can be identified as follows:
1986: UGC constituted a 15-member committee on Accreditation and Assessment Council under the chairmanship of Dr. Vasant Gowarikar.
1987-1990: Nine regional seminars and a national seminar organized to debate Gowarikar Committee report.
1990: Dr Sukumaran Nair’s project report submitted to UGC that reflected a consensus to have an accreditation agency accountable to UGC.
1992: The revised New Education Policy reiterated all round improvement of educational institutions.
1994: Prof. G. Ram Reddy committee appointed to finalize the memorandum of association and rules and regulation of the accreditation board (July 1994).
1994: National Assessment and Accreditation Council established at Bangalore (September 1994).
VISION AND MISSON
VISION: - To make quality the quality defining element of higher education in India through a combination of self and external quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance initiatives.

MISSION

v  To arrange for periodic assessment and accreditation of institutions of higher education or units thereof, or specific academic programmes or projects;
v  To stimulate the academic environment for promotion of quality of teaching-learning and research in higher education institutions;
v  To encourage self-evaluation, accountability, autonomy and innovations in higher education;
v  To undertake quality-related research studies, consultancy and training programmes, and
v  To collaborate with other stakeholders of higher education for quality evaluation, promotion and sustenance.  
Guided by its vision and striving to achieve its mission, the NAAC primarily assesses the quality of institutions of higher education that volunteer for the process, through an internationally accepted methodology.
 VALUE FRAMEWORK
To promote cognizance developments and the role of higher education in society, NAAC (2004) has developed five core values:
1. Contributing to national development
2. Fostering global competencies among students
3. Inculcating a value system in students
4. Promoting the use of technology
5. Quest for excellence
Governance Structure
NAAC’s working is governed by the General Council (GC) and the Executive Committee (EC) on which University Grants Commission (UGC), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), Association of Indian Universities (AIU), Universities, Colleges and other professional institutions are represented. Senior academics and educational administrators are nominated as members on these two bodies.
President- General Council: - Prof. Ved Prakash has held eminent positions in a number of premier organizations dealing with Higher education, School education, and Personnel selection.
Chairman- Executive Committee: -Clause 19(b) of the Rules of NAAC- Every meeting of the executive committee shall be presided over by the Chairperson of the executive committee and in his/her absence by the Vice Chairman of UGC, and in the absence of both the senior most member of the Executive Committee.
COMMITTEES
NAAC functions through its General Council (GC) and Executive Committee (EC) and other academic, advisory and administrative sub committees. NAAC draws its expertise from senior academics of undoubted integrity from all over India.
Important committees under NAAC are as follows:
1. General Council
2. Executive Committee
3. Finance Committee
4. Building Committee
5. Appeals Committee
6. Purchase Committee
7. CRIEQA Committee
Instrumentation and Methodology
A new methodology was introduced in April 2007, as per this methodology, the higher education institutions are assessed and accredited in a two step approach.
In the first step, the institution is required to seek Institutional Eligibility for Quality Assessment (IEQA) and the second step is the assessment and accreditation of the institution. NAAC has identified seven criteria-Curricular Aspects, Teaching, Learning and Education, Researches, Consultancy and Extension, Infrastructure and learning Resources, Student support and Progression, Governance and Leadership and  Innovative practices.
The methodology of NAAC is evolved over 15 years and has undergone several changes based on feedback from stakeholders to match pace with changing higher education scenario. In keeping with this tradition NAAC has initiated stakeholder consultation process of a long time also having contributed to the evolution of NAAC.
The Assessment and Accreditation is in three dimensions which are explained below:
1. ON-LINE SUBMISSION OF A LETTER
2. PREPARATION OF SELF STUDY REPORT” – The first and most important step in the process of assessment is the submission of the self study report to NAAC. NAAC believes that an institution that really understands itself- its strengths and weaknesses, its potentials and limitations. Self- study is thus envisaged as the backbone of the process of assessment. NAAC insists that the report contain two parts. Part I may contain data about the institution under the seven criteria for assessment for which NAAC has developed a format. Based on the data collected in part I, the institution is expected to analyze its functioning and performance, and self-analysis becomes part II of the self- study report.
3. PEER TEAM VISIT: -The selection of team members and their subsequent visit to the unit of accreditation are stages in a process that begins as soon as an institution submits its self- study report. The visit by the peer team gives the institution an opportunity to discuss and find ways of consolidating and improving the academic environment. As the first step to constitute the peer team, NAAC identifies a panel, from the extensive database of experts, with national- level representation and consults the institution about any justifiable reservations it may have regarding any member of the panel. During the on-site visit, keeping in mind philosophy of NAAC, the peer team does an objective assessment of the quality of education offered in the institution through three major activities- visiting departments and facilities, interacting with various constituencies of the institution and checking documentary evidences.
4. GRADING AND CERTIFICATION: - The major role of the peer team is to provide the institutional score and the detailed assessment report. The rest of the process is to be performed by NAAC as directed by the executive committee. If overall score is not less than 55%, the institution obtains the accredited status. Accredited institutions are graded on a five- point scale with the following scale values:
GRADE
INSTITUTIONAL SCORE
A++
95-100
A+
90-95
A
85-90
B++
80-85
B+
75-80
B
70-75
C++
65-70
C+
60-65
C
55-60
Institutions, which do not attain the minimum 55% points for accreditation, would also be intimated and notified indicating that the institution is “assessed and found not qualified for accreditation”. After EC’s decision, the institution is informed of the overall grade along with the criterion- wise scores and the information is included on the website.     `
Quality Initiatives by NAAc
1. Quality Sustenance and Promotion by sensitizing institutions to the concepts such as credit transfer, student mobility and mutual   recognition
2. Establishment of State-Level Quality Assurance Co-ordination Committees (SLQACCs) in different States
3. Networking among accredited institutions in order to promote exchange of "Best/Innovative Practices”
4. Dissemination of Best/Innovative Practices through seminar/workshops and NAAC publications
5. Financial support to accredited institutions for conducting seminars/conferences/ workshops etc. on quality issues in Higher Education
6. Establishment of Internal Quality Assurance Cells
7. State-wise analysis of Accreditation Reports for policy initiatives
8. Promoting the concept of Lead College and Cluster of Colleges for Quality initiatives
9. Research grants for faculty of accredited institutions to execute projects on different themes / case studies
10. Initiation of student involvement for quality enhancement
11. Developing international linkages for mutual recognition through accreditation
Role of NAAC in changing scenario
Role of NAAC in the changing scenario of higher education needs to be redefined with respect to recognition cum accreditation, programme accreditation, national level ranking of universities, preparation of national benchmarks, national and international database, research and development centre, developing reports and policy papers to Government of India (GOI), accreditation of multiple accreditation agencies, recognition of regional/state level accreditation bodies etc.
Assessment and Accreditation by NAAC may be made mandatory for all higher education institutions of the country.
·                     NAAC may start programme accreditation
·                     Ranking of institutions may not be very much relevant when compared to grading
·                     All accreditation agencies including NAAC are to be accredited once in three years.
·                     While NAAC could be accredited by recognized international accreditation bodies, NAAC could perform this function for all the multiple accreditation agencies getting recognized by Government of India (GOI).
·                     NAAC grading and duration of accreditation may be linked and longer period of accreditation may be considered for the third cycle of institutional accreditation.
·                     NAAC needs to continue to be an Apex Assessment and Accreditation body for higher education institution, in the country providing vision and leadership.
NAAC suggestions
NAAC suggestions for overall development of the higher educational institutions, given below;
1. Since the state Govt. is deputing a large number of teachers for undergoing B.Ed programme, this is making the classes a bit crowded.
2.  Further, the Govt. colleges in the state are under the dual control of the University on one side and the Govt. on the other. Would it be possible for the Govt. & the University to make these colleges as constituent colleges of the University, thus paving the way for their better growth & development?
3. In view of the increased number of seats & diversification of courses, the college needs to have more number of teachers, especially in languages.
4. Laboratory facility needs to be enriched and expanded.
5. College should have a well equipped language lab, especially in view of the fact that every B.Ed Trainee opts for one language.
6. The college caters to the academic needs of the students who came from far off areas like Kargil and Ladakh; it needs to have hostels for boys and girls students.
7. As internship & practice of teaching are separately shown in the syllabus, internship needs to be streamlined & broad based.
8. Provision of some merit cum means scholarships need to be made for students from weaker section of society in view of the trend of increase in fee structure every year.
9. The suggestions put forth by the faculty to the University that the Project work should not be group work, needs immediate attention to avoid discrimination.
10. The Computer lab should be expanded, have more qualified Teachers; Faculty improvement programme should be strengthened.
Challenges ahead in higher education
The recent developments mainly globalization of education and the extensive use of educational technology have made the issue of quality measurement even more complex. The quality assurance systems have to constantly modify their procedure to address a growing variety of open and distance learning opportunities, which is stimulated by the use of information technologies. The review procedures developed for conventional system are hardly sufficient for electronic delivery methods, which has a wider reach.
A large number of institutions are offering distance education programmes. They use multimedia strategies, enroll higher number of students of heterogeneous backgrounds and differ considerably in their capacities to use electronic media and delivery infrastructure. The development has serious implications for quality assurance agencies.
A similar concern arises in the context of international students’ mobility due to globalization of education. When student enroll in other countries of foreign universities offering programmes in the students home country, the study plans must be evaluated to establish equivalence of their degree programmes.
The emergence of private higher education institution is also a greater concern to maintain quality and standard. Privatization creates little problem but the commercialization of self financing institutions create lot of problems for maintaining quality as making profit is their main concern. They run the institution without well qualified staff, needed infrastructure, student facilities, research etc. In such type of institutions, the relationship between the capacity to offer quality programmes and the scale of delivery of services is hard to establish. Because of the internationalization of education, the solution to the major issues and problems concerning quality assurance should be sought through co-operation among institutions and countries. Therefore, global effort is needed to deal with the challenge to quality assurance.
CONCLUSION
            An Internal Quality Assurance Cell has to play crucial role in protecting the quality of education service in India. The establishment of this cell is a mandatory task before every higher education institution that is planning to go for NAAC accreditation. Educational Institution, NAAC, AICTE, UGC and state and central governments has to impose certain kind of restrictions on every higher education institution in quality aspects of the service delivery which will place them in certain pressure in different quality dimensions. Now everybody has realized the importance of quality deliverables in this sector to protect the local institutions from the foreign institutions which has already entered into the country and received prominent response from the prospective students’. If our higher education institutions and regulatory bodies failed to maintain quality aspects in delivering the quality education service; those institutions definitely will disappear from the education map of India. Therefore sustaining quality in this crucial sector which will mould the future of our upcoming generations is a prime responsibility of our education system which will be possible only through continuous monitoring with the support of Internal Quality Assurance Cell of every Higher Education Institution.