Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label EDUCATION. Show all posts


INTRODUCTION
One of the most important schools of philosophy of education is pragmatism. Pragmatism stands between idealism and materialism a sort of compromise. Its origin can be traced from the Sophists philosophers of ancient Greece who held that man is the measure of all things.
The term pragmatism derives its origin from a Greek word meaning to do, to make, to accomplish. So the use of words likes ‘action’ or ‘practice’ or ‘activity’. Action gets priority over thought. Experience is   at the centre of the universe. Everyone is tested on the touch-stone of experience. Beliefs and ideas are true if they are workable and profitable otherwise false. Will Durant sums up pragmatism as the doctrine that truth is the practical efficiency of an idea. It follows there from that pragmatism is not a philosophy but a method–the method of experimentation. As a basis for school practice pragmatism opposes pre-determined and pre-ordained objectives and curriculums. The past of the pragmatist is dead.
     Values are instrumental only. There are no final or fixed values. They are evolved and are not true for all times and for all situations. According to an undeviating standard of worth, pragmatism tends to be individualistic, selfish; has no values; has no ethics and is thus superficial.
FORMS OF PRAGMATISM
1. HUMANISTIC PRAGMATISM-
This type of pragmatism is particularly found in social sciences. According to it the satisfaction of human nature is the criterion of utility. In philosophy, in religion and even in science man is the aim of all thinking and everything else is a means to achieve human satisfaction.                                                                                   
2. EXPERIMENTAL PRAGMATISM-
 Modern science is based upon experimental method. The fact that can be ascertained by experiment is true. No truth is final, truth is known only to the extent it is useful in practice. The pragmatists use this criterion of truth in every field of life. The human problems can be solved only through experiment.
3. NOMINALISTIC PRAGMATISM-
When we make any experiment we attend to the result. Our aim is examination of the material. Some hypothesis about the results invariably precedes every experiment. According to nominalistic pragmatism, the results of an experiment are always particular and concrete, never general and abstract.
4. BIOLOGICAL PRAGMATISM-
Experimentalism of John Dewey is based upon this biological pragmatism according to which the ultimate aim of all knowledge is harmony of the man with the environment. Education develops social skill which facilitates one’s life. The school is a miniature society which prepares the child for future life.        
PRINCIPLES OF PRAGMATISM
1. PLURALISM-
Philosophically, the pragmatists are pluralists. According to them there are as many words as human beings. The ultimate reality is not one but many. Everyone searches truth and aim of life according to his experiences.
2. EMPHASIS ON CHANGE-
The pragmatists emphasize change. The world is a process, a constant flux. Truth is always in the making. The world is ever progressing and evolving. Therefore, everything here is changing.
3. UTILITARIANISM-
Pragmatists are utility is the test of all truth and reality. A useful principle is true. Utility means fulfillment of human purposes. The results decide the good and evil of anything, idea, beliefs and acts. Utility means satisfaction of human needs.
4. CHANGING AIM AND VALUES-
The aim and values of life change in different times and climes. The old aims and values, therefore, cannot be accepted as they are. Human life and the world is a laboratory in which the aims and values are developed.
5. INDIVIDUALISM-
Pragmatists are individualists. They put maximum premium upon freedom in human life. Liberty goes with equality and fraternity. Everyone should adjust to his environment.
6. EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL ASPECTS-
Since man is a social animal therefore, he develops in social circumstances. His success is success in society. The aim of education is to make him successful by developing his social personality.
7. EXPERIMENTALISM-
Pragmatists are experimentalists. They give more importance to action than ideas. Activity is the means to attain the end of knowledge. Therefore, one should learn by doing constant experimentation which is required in every field of life.
PRAGMATISM AND EDUCATIVE PROCESS
Activity lies at the centre of all educative process. The basis of all teaching is the activity of the child, says Foster. Every continuous- experience or activity is educative and all education, is fact, resides in having such experience. But continuous growth in experience is not the whole education. Education is something more. It is a constant reorganizing or reconstructing of experience. Pragmatism approaches the problems of education from the ‘progressivits’ view point “progress implies change. Change further implies novelty”, so education cannot be conceived of as acquired once for all. Problem solving is at the core of all education. The educative process thus becomes empirical, experimental, and piecemeal: in a word pragmatic.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
1. EDUCATION AS LIFE-
Pragmatists firmly believe that old and traditional education is dead and lifeless. Education is a continuous re-organizing, reconstructing and integrating the experience and activities of race. They want to conserve the worthwhile culture of the past, think out the solutions to meet the new situations and then integrate the two. Real knowledge can be gained only be activity, experiments and real life experiences.
2. EDUCATION AS GROWTH-
Thus education will be useful if it brings about the growth and development of the individual as well as the society in which he lives. Education is meant for the child and child is not meant for education and child is not empty bottle to be filled up by outside knowledge. Each child is born with inherent capacities, tendencies and aptitudes which are drawn out and developed by education. One of the aims of education is to develop all the inherent capacities of the child to the fullest extent.
3. EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL PROCESS-
To pragmatism, man is a social being. He gains more and more knowledge through personal experiences than he gets from books. According to pragmatism, the education of the child should be through the medium of society so that develops in him socially desirable qualities which promote his welfare and happiness. John Dewey rightly speaks out – Education is the social continuity of life.
4. EDUCATION A CONTINUOUS RESTRUCTURING OF EXPERIENCE-
Education is a process of development. Knowledge is gained by experiences and experiments, conducted by the learner himself. One exercise leads to another and so on and the area of knowledge is widened by the child. The process of reconstruction of experience goes on and leads to adjustment and development of personality. For pragmatists educational process has no end beyond itself. In addition to the individual it is continuous reorganizing restructuring and integrating the experience and activities of the race.
5. EDUCATION THE RESPONSIBILITY OF STATE-
Education is the birth right of each individual and may not be within the right of the individual, so the state should shoulder the responsibility. The refusal of the state to do so may not lead the nation to suffering. It is for the state to make the child capable and confident to meet the problems and challenges of life successfully.
 AIMS AND PRAGMATISM
             Pragmatists do not believe in any pre-conceived aims of education. Aims cannot be conceived of as final, fixed and immutable. Aims arise out of the ongoing experience and should lie wholly within the child’s experience. Living as we do, in a changing world with an uncertain and shifting future, human experience is prone to change. And so the need to reshape our aims to meet the needs of such a dynamic environment as ours has become where the invention of every machine means a new social revolution. So it has been said that education has no aims. “Continuing education “, says a UNESCO booklet, “has become a necessity in almost every field of life from housekeeping to atomics”. Education is a lifelong process and not as something to discipline the recalcitrant person in to conformity with the pre-existing truth. The pupil should be able to, as they say, ’thing through’ the problems. Education for Dewey is a process of individual growth and development. But “growth itself“, says Brubacher “has no end beyond further growth”. In other words, he goes on to say “education is its own end”. Education means more education.
PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM
         In the field of curriculum development, the following principles have been prescribed by pragmatists.
1. PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY-
According to this principle, only those subjects, activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which are useful to the present needs of the child and also meet the future expectations of adult life as well. As such Language, physical well-being, physical training, Geography, History, Science, Agriculture and Home science for girls should be included in the curriculum.
2. PRINCIPLE OF INTEREST-  
According to this principle, only those activities and experiences where in the child takes interest should be included in the curriculum. According to John Dewey these interests are of four varieties namely- (1) interest in conversation, (2) interest in investigation, (3) interest in construction and (4) interest in creative expression. Keeping these varieties of interests in view, at the primary stage, the curriculum should included Reading, Writing, Counting, Art, Craft-work, Natural science and other practical work of simple nature.
3. PRINCIPLE OF EXPERIENCE-
The third principle of pragmatic curriculum is the child’s activity, vocation and experience. All these three should be closely integrated. The curriculum should consist of such varieties of learning experiences which promote original thinking and freedom to develop social and purposeful attitudes.
4. PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION-
Pragmatic curriculum deals with the integration of subjects and activities. According to pragmatism knowledge is one unit. Pragmatists want to construct flexible, dynamic and integrated curriculum which aids the developing child and the changing society more and more as the needs, demands and situation require.
PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING            
   The whole emphasis of method of teaching in pragmatism is on child, not the book, or the teacher or the subject. The dominant interest of the child is “to do and to make”. The method should be flexible and dynamic. It must be adaptable and modifiable to suit the nature of the subject matter and potentiality of the students. The pragmatist’s curriculum provides for creative and purposeful activities in the teaching- learning process. Pragmatists regard school is a’ miniature of society’ where child gets real experiences to act and behave according to his interests, aptitudes and capacities.      
                  Project method is a contribution of pragmatist philosophy in education. According to Kilpatrick “a project is a whole hearted purposeful activity carried out in a social environment”. The child learns by doing says John Dewey. All learning must come as a product of action. Learning by doing makes a person creative, confident and co-operative. They also emphasize the discovery and enquiry methods. The method like problem solving, play-way, experimental and laboratory techniques which follow the principle of learning by doing can be used according to pragmatic view.
TEACHER
           Pragmatism regards teacher as a helper, guide and philosopher. The chief function of pragmatic teacher is to suggest problems to his pupils and to stimulate them to find by themselves, the solutions, which will work. The teacher must provide opportunities for the natural development of innate qualities of children. His main task is to suggest problems to his pupils and to guide them to find out solutions.
 DISCIPLINE
       To utilize the interest of the pupil is the basis of discipline here. The teacher and pupils attack a problem jointly. Teacher’s role is that of a guide and a director; it is the pupil who acts, learning this becomes a cooperative venture- a joint enterprise. Pursuit of common purposes enforces it own order. Education becomes a social process of sharing between the members of the various groups and all are equal partners in the process. That is no rewards also there are no placing for the martinet so any punishments. The discipline proceeds from the life of the school as a whole.
 CONTRIBUTIONS OF PRAGMATISM TO EDUCATION
·                     Pragmatism provides definite aims of education. The student is prepared to live in society and learn skills and attitudes. Which are required of him to live as a useful member of society?
·                     The teaching methods are based on learning by doing. The project method is the contribution of pragmatism to modern education.
·                     Pragmatism encourages a democratic way of learning through          purposeful      and     cooperative         projects and activities.
·                     Utility in the educative process is the first criterion. The school is expected to provide learning and experiences that are useful.
·                     Education is not bound to tradition. Pragmatic philosophers advise us to test everything through our own experience.
·                     The teacher has to play a very challenging role in the educative process under pragmatism and he has to be very alert and watchful.
DEMERITS OF PRAGMATISM
1. OPPOSITION TO ETERNAL TRUTHS
Pragmatism is opposed to pre-determined truth. According to it, truth changes according to a change in circumstances, times and places and is created by the consequences of our actions and experiences. Pragmatists hold that if the results of an activity are satisfying, then it is true otherwise not.
2. OPPOSITION OF PRE-DETERMINED IDEAS AND VALUES-
This emphasizes that ideals and values are man-made and change according to changes in circumstances, times and places. But all noble things have entered into this human world by the efforts of those great persons who were inspired by the great ideals namely- truth, beauty and goodness.
3. NO PRE-DETERMINED AIMS OF EDUCATION
There are no set and pre determined aims of education as well. In the absence of definite aims of education, all educational plans and efforts may go astray and achieve nothing.
4. NEGATIONS OF SPIRITUAL VALUES-
Pragmatists deny the existence of spiritual values. Negligence of spiritual value is a great blunder. Without developing spiritual values achieving human welfare, peace and satisfaction is simply to cry for the moon.
5. OPPOSITION OF INTELLECTUALITY-
Pragmatists believe that a man’s intelligence is subservient to his innate tendencies. This makes him only an animal.
6. NEGATION OF POST
Agmatists, emphasizing only the present and future, and neglects the past. Without the knowledge of past one cannot understand the present and without knowing the present thoroughly nothing can be predicted for the future.
7. DIFFICULTY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CURRICULUM
Pragmatism emphasize that all knowledge is to be gained from experiences of life. Selecting a project and construction of curriculum to gain all knowledge from life experiences is very difficult.
8. PRAGMATISM IS A METHOD ONLY
Unlike other philosophical doctrines, pragmatism does not lay down any aims, ideals and values of life to be pursued by human beings. Hence, pragmatism cannot be termed as a philosophy of life.
 MERITS OF PRAGMATISM
1. CONSTRUCTION OF PROJECT METHOD
In the field of methods of teaching, pragmatism has given birth to project method. This method, a child indulging in various creative activities, is able to solve many problems which cater to his natural progress and development.
2. IMPORTANCE OF CHILD-
Opposing bookish knowledge and formal education, pragmatism lays great stress upon the development of child’s individuality by his own efforts.
3. EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITY
Pragmatism emphasizes upon activity. The principle of learning by doing is the main contribution of pragmatism
4. FAITH IN APPLIED LIFE-
Pragmatism emphasizes the practical life of child. Pragmatic education prepares the child for future life in a very effective manner.
5. SOCIAL AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION-
 Pragmatism develops in the child love for democratic values and social efficiency which bring harmonious adjustment and development of personality.
6. INFUSION OF NEW LIFE IN EDUCATION-
Pragmatism has revolutionized the process of education to a very great extent. This has infused a new life and zest in education.
CONCLUSION
The foregoing discussion shows that pupil’s immediate experiences, felt needs and purposes play a prominent part in the determination of educational programmes and policies. This confirms the faith in the worth and improvability of individuals. Pragmatism puts emphasis on free flow of ideas, spirit of inquiry of investigation and discussion. Pragmatism upholds the supreme value of man and prescribes freedom of thinking, experimenting and experiencing for him. Not only this, it lays emphasis upon flexibility, utility and adjustment in all fields of human activity promoting the continuous development of individual and society to the fullest extent.
                Pragmatic philosophy is a practical philosophy, having no fixed or absolute standards. Man always creates new values and education should help him in doing so. Being practical and utilitarian school of philosophy, pragmatism has influenced education to the maximum extent. It has tried overcoming the limitations of other schools like idealism and naturalism and has influenced world in a great deal



READ ALSO :

IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

IMPLICATIONS OF PRAGMATISM IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM



INTRODUCTION
One of the most important schools of philosophy of education is pragmatism. Pragmatism stands between idealism and materialism a sort of compromise. Its origin can be traced from the Sophists philosophers of ancient Greece who held that man is the measure of all things.
The term pragmatism derives its origin from a Greek word meaning to do, to make, to accomplish. So the use of words likes ‘action’ or ‘practice’ or ‘activity’. Action gets priority over thought. Experience is   at the centre of the universe. Everyone is tested on the touch-stone of experience. Beliefs and ideas are true if they are workable and profitable otherwise false. Will Durant sums up pragmatism as the doctrine that truth is the practical efficiency of an idea. It follows there from that pragmatism is not a philosophy but a method–the method of experimentation. As a basis for school practice pragmatism opposes pre-determined and pre-ordained objectives and curriculums. The past of the pragmatist is dead.
     Values are instrumental only. There are no final or fixed values. They are evolved and are not true for all times and for all situations. According to an undeviating standard of worth, pragmatism tends to be individualistic, selfish; has no values; has no ethics and is thus superficial.
FORMS OF PRAGMATISM
1. HUMANISTIC PRAGMATISM-
This type of pragmatism is particularly found in social sciences. According to it the satisfaction of human nature is the criterion of utility. In philosophy, in religion and even in science man is the aim of all thinking and everything else is a means to achieve human satisfaction.                                                                                   
2. EXPERIMENTAL PRAGMATISM-
 Modern science is based upon experimental method. The fact that can be ascertained by experiment is true. No truth is final, truth is known only to the extent it is useful in practice. The pragmatists use this criterion of truth in every field of life. The human problems can be solved only through experiment.
3. NOMINALISTIC PRAGMATISM-
When we make any experiment we attend to the result. Our aim is examination of the material. Some hypothesis about the results invariably precedes every experiment. According to nominalistic pragmatism, the results of an experiment are always particular and concrete, never general and abstract.
4. BIOLOGICAL PRAGMATISM-
Experimentalism of John Dewey is based upon this biological pragmatism according to which the ultimate aim of all knowledge is harmony of the man with the environment. Education develops social skill which facilitates one’s life. The school is a miniature society which prepares the child for future life.        
PRINCIPLES OF PRAGMATISM
1. PLURALISM-
Philosophically, the pragmatists are pluralists. According to them there are as many words as human beings. The ultimate reality is not one but many. Everyone searches truth and aim of life according to his experiences.
2. EMPHASIS ON CHANGE-
The pragmatists emphasize change. The world is a process, a constant flux. Truth is always in the making. The world is ever progressing and evolving. Therefore, everything here is changing.
3. UTILITARIANISM-
Pragmatists are utility is the test of all truth and reality. A useful principle is true. Utility means fulfillment of human purposes. The results decide the good and evil of anything, idea, beliefs and acts. Utility means satisfaction of human needs.
4. CHANGING AIM AND VALUES-
The aim and values of life change in different times and climes. The old aims and values, therefore, cannot be accepted as they are. Human life and the world is a laboratory in which the aims and values are developed.
5. INDIVIDUALISM-
Pragmatists are individualists. They put maximum premium upon freedom in human life. Liberty goes with equality and fraternity. Everyone should adjust to his environment.
6. EMPHASIS ON SOCIAL ASPECTS-
Since man is a social animal therefore, he develops in social circumstances. His success is success in society. The aim of education is to make him successful by developing his social personality.
7. EXPERIMENTALISM-
Pragmatists are experimentalists. They give more importance to action than ideas. Activity is the means to attain the end of knowledge. Therefore, one should learn by doing constant experimentation which is required in every field of life.
PRAGMATISM AND EDUCATIVE PROCESS
Activity lies at the centre of all educative process. The basis of all teaching is the activity of the child, says Foster. Every continuous- experience or activity is educative and all education, is fact, resides in having such experience. But continuous growth in experience is not the whole education. Education is something more. It is a constant reorganizing or reconstructing of experience. Pragmatism approaches the problems of education from the ‘progressivits’ view point “progress implies change. Change further implies novelty”, so education cannot be conceived of as acquired once for all. Problem solving is at the core of all education. The educative process thus becomes empirical, experimental, and piecemeal: in a word pragmatic.
EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
1. EDUCATION AS LIFE-
Pragmatists firmly believe that old and traditional education is dead and lifeless. Education is a continuous re-organizing, reconstructing and integrating the experience and activities of race. They want to conserve the worthwhile culture of the past, think out the solutions to meet the new situations and then integrate the two. Real knowledge can be gained only be activity, experiments and real life experiences.
2. EDUCATION AS GROWTH-
Thus education will be useful if it brings about the growth and development of the individual as well as the society in which he lives. Education is meant for the child and child is not meant for education and child is not empty bottle to be filled up by outside knowledge. Each child is born with inherent capacities, tendencies and aptitudes which are drawn out and developed by education. One of the aims of education is to develop all the inherent capacities of the child to the fullest extent.
3. EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL PROCESS-
To pragmatism, man is a social being. He gains more and more knowledge through personal experiences than he gets from books. According to pragmatism, the education of the child should be through the medium of society so that develops in him socially desirable qualities which promote his welfare and happiness. John Dewey rightly speaks out – Education is the social continuity of life.
4. EDUCATION A CONTINUOUS RESTRUCTURING OF EXPERIENCE-
Education is a process of development. Knowledge is gained by experiences and experiments, conducted by the learner himself. One exercise leads to another and so on and the area of knowledge is widened by the child. The process of reconstruction of experience goes on and leads to adjustment and development of personality. For pragmatists educational process has no end beyond itself. In addition to the individual it is continuous reorganizing restructuring and integrating the experience and activities of the race.
5. EDUCATION THE RESPONSIBILITY OF STATE-
Education is the birth right of each individual and may not be within the right of the individual, so the state should shoulder the responsibility. The refusal of the state to do so may not lead the nation to suffering. It is for the state to make the child capable and confident to meet the problems and challenges of life successfully.
 AIMS AND PRAGMATISM
             Pragmatists do not believe in any pre-conceived aims of education. Aims cannot be conceived of as final, fixed and immutable. Aims arise out of the ongoing experience and should lie wholly within the child’s experience. Living as we do, in a changing world with an uncertain and shifting future, human experience is prone to change. And so the need to reshape our aims to meet the needs of such a dynamic environment as ours has become where the invention of every machine means a new social revolution. So it has been said that education has no aims. “Continuing education “, says a UNESCO booklet, “has become a necessity in almost every field of life from housekeeping to atomics”. Education is a lifelong process and not as something to discipline the recalcitrant person in to conformity with the pre-existing truth. The pupil should be able to, as they say, ’thing through’ the problems. Education for Dewey is a process of individual growth and development. But “growth itself“, says Brubacher “has no end beyond further growth”. In other words, he goes on to say “education is its own end”. Education means more education.
PRAGMATISM AND CURRICULUM
         In the field of curriculum development, the following principles have been prescribed by pragmatists.
1. PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY-
According to this principle, only those subjects, activities and experiences should be included in the curriculum which are useful to the present needs of the child and also meet the future expectations of adult life as well. As such Language, physical well-being, physical training, Geography, History, Science, Agriculture and Home science for girls should be included in the curriculum.
2. PRINCIPLE OF INTEREST-  
According to this principle, only those activities and experiences where in the child takes interest should be included in the curriculum. According to John Dewey these interests are of four varieties namely- (1) interest in conversation, (2) interest in investigation, (3) interest in construction and (4) interest in creative expression. Keeping these varieties of interests in view, at the primary stage, the curriculum should included Reading, Writing, Counting, Art, Craft-work, Natural science and other practical work of simple nature.
3. PRINCIPLE OF EXPERIENCE-
The third principle of pragmatic curriculum is the child’s activity, vocation and experience. All these three should be closely integrated. The curriculum should consist of such varieties of learning experiences which promote original thinking and freedom to develop social and purposeful attitudes.
4. PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION-
Pragmatic curriculum deals with the integration of subjects and activities. According to pragmatism knowledge is one unit. Pragmatists want to construct flexible, dynamic and integrated curriculum which aids the developing child and the changing society more and more as the needs, demands and situation require.
PRAGMATISM AND METHODS OF TEACHING            
   The whole emphasis of method of teaching in pragmatism is on child, not the book, or the teacher or the subject. The dominant interest of the child is “to do and to make”. The method should be flexible and dynamic. It must be adaptable and modifiable to suit the nature of the subject matter and potentiality of the students. The pragmatist’s curriculum provides for creative and purposeful activities in the teaching- learning process. Pragmatists regard school is a’ miniature of society’ where child gets real experiences to act and behave according to his interests, aptitudes and capacities.      
                  Project method is a contribution of pragmatist philosophy in education. According to Kilpatrick “a project is a whole hearted purposeful activity carried out in a social environment”. The child learns by doing says John Dewey. All learning must come as a product of action. Learning by doing makes a person creative, confident and co-operative. They also emphasize the discovery and enquiry methods. The method like problem solving, play-way, experimental and laboratory techniques which follow the principle of learning by doing can be used according to pragmatic view.
TEACHER
           Pragmatism regards teacher as a helper, guide and philosopher. The chief function of pragmatic teacher is to suggest problems to his pupils and to stimulate them to find by themselves, the solutions, which will work. The teacher must provide opportunities for the natural development of innate qualities of children. His main task is to suggest problems to his pupils and to guide them to find out solutions.
 DISCIPLINE
       To utilize the interest of the pupil is the basis of discipline here. The teacher and pupils attack a problem jointly. Teacher’s role is that of a guide and a director; it is the pupil who acts, learning this becomes a cooperative venture- a joint enterprise. Pursuit of common purposes enforces it own order. Education becomes a social process of sharing between the members of the various groups and all are equal partners in the process. That is no rewards also there are no placing for the martinet so any punishments. The discipline proceeds from the life of the school as a whole.
 CONTRIBUTIONS OF PRAGMATISM TO EDUCATION
·                     Pragmatism provides definite aims of education. The student is prepared to live in society and learn skills and attitudes. Which are required of him to live as a useful member of society?
·                     The teaching methods are based on learning by doing. The project method is the contribution of pragmatism to modern education.
·                     Pragmatism encourages a democratic way of learning through          purposeful      and     cooperative         projects and activities.
·                     Utility in the educative process is the first criterion. The school is expected to provide learning and experiences that are useful.
·                     Education is not bound to tradition. Pragmatic philosophers advise us to test everything through our own experience.
·                     The teacher has to play a very challenging role in the educative process under pragmatism and he has to be very alert and watchful.
DEMERITS OF PRAGMATISM
1. OPPOSITION TO ETERNAL TRUTHS
Pragmatism is opposed to pre-determined truth. According to it, truth changes according to a change in circumstances, times and places and is created by the consequences of our actions and experiences. Pragmatists hold that if the results of an activity are satisfying, then it is true otherwise not.
2. OPPOSITION OF PRE-DETERMINED IDEAS AND VALUES-
This emphasizes that ideals and values are man-made and change according to changes in circumstances, times and places. But all noble things have entered into this human world by the efforts of those great persons who were inspired by the great ideals namely- truth, beauty and goodness.
3. NO PRE-DETERMINED AIMS OF EDUCATION
There are no set and pre determined aims of education as well. In the absence of definite aims of education, all educational plans and efforts may go astray and achieve nothing.
4. NEGATIONS OF SPIRITUAL VALUES-
Pragmatists deny the existence of spiritual values. Negligence of spiritual value is a great blunder. Without developing spiritual values achieving human welfare, peace and satisfaction is simply to cry for the moon.
5. OPPOSITION OF INTELLECTUALITY-
Pragmatists believe that a man’s intelligence is subservient to his innate tendencies. This makes him only an animal.
6. NEGATION OF POST
Agmatists, emphasizing only the present and future, and neglects the past. Without the knowledge of past one cannot understand the present and without knowing the present thoroughly nothing can be predicted for the future.
7. DIFFICULTY IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CURRICULUM
Pragmatism emphasize that all knowledge is to be gained from experiences of life. Selecting a project and construction of curriculum to gain all knowledge from life experiences is very difficult.
8. PRAGMATISM IS A METHOD ONLY
Unlike other philosophical doctrines, pragmatism does not lay down any aims, ideals and values of life to be pursued by human beings. Hence, pragmatism cannot be termed as a philosophy of life.
 MERITS OF PRAGMATISM
1. CONSTRUCTION OF PROJECT METHOD
In the field of methods of teaching, pragmatism has given birth to project method. This method, a child indulging in various creative activities, is able to solve many problems which cater to his natural progress and development.
2. IMPORTANCE OF CHILD-
Opposing bookish knowledge and formal education, pragmatism lays great stress upon the development of child’s individuality by his own efforts.
3. EMPHASIS ON ACTIVITY
Pragmatism emphasizes upon activity. The principle of learning by doing is the main contribution of pragmatism
4. FAITH IN APPLIED LIFE-
Pragmatism emphasizes the practical life of child. Pragmatic education prepares the child for future life in a very effective manner.
5. SOCIAL AND DEMOCRATIC EDUCATION-
 Pragmatism develops in the child love for democratic values and social efficiency which bring harmonious adjustment and development of personality.
6. INFUSION OF NEW LIFE IN EDUCATION-
Pragmatism has revolutionized the process of education to a very great extent. This has infused a new life and zest in education.
CONCLUSION
The foregoing discussion shows that pupil’s immediate experiences, felt needs and purposes play a prominent part in the determination of educational programmes and policies. This confirms the faith in the worth and improvability of individuals. Pragmatism puts emphasis on free flow of ideas, spirit of inquiry of investigation and discussion. Pragmatism upholds the supreme value of man and prescribes freedom of thinking, experimenting and experiencing for him. Not only this, it lays emphasis upon flexibility, utility and adjustment in all fields of human activity promoting the continuous development of individual and society to the fullest extent.
                Pragmatic philosophy is a practical philosophy, having no fixed or absolute standards. Man always creates new values and education should help him in doing so. Being practical and utilitarian school of philosophy, pragmatism has influenced education to the maximum extent. It has tried overcoming the limitations of other schools like idealism and naturalism and has influenced world in a great deal



READ ALSO :

IMPLICATIONS OF IDEALISM IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM



INTRODUCTION
 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION, MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 
A good deal of improvement in the teacher education programme is needed. Pre-service education is carried on for preparing different types of teachers. Pre-service teacher preparation is a collection of unrelated courses and field experience. Research based curriculum development of pre-service teacher education is yet to take roots. These programmes are intended to support and enhance teacher learning instill in them a greater degree of self confidence. The beginning teachers in this case learn from their practice and from the culture and norms of the unique school settings where in they have been placed and interact with these cultures.
                It is important for teacher educators to learn the methodology of how to get in touch with the core qualities of a good teacher and how they can stimulate these qualities in student teachers. This will lead to a deeper involvement in the learning process of teacher educators as well as student teachers. The inclusion of appropriate content knowledge about essential qualities of a good teacher in relevant theory papers and practice of effective domain related traits in school situation for a longer duration could help promote these traits in student teachers. The teacher education programme needs to allow the space where in a teacher’s personality could be developed as someone who is reflective, introspective and capable of analyzing his or her own life and the process of education at school so that after becoming a teacher, he becomes an agent of change.
A.                 PRE-PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME.
 Here teachers are trained for teaching children of pre-primary classes. This type of teacher training is generally called nursery teacher training (N.T.T). Teacher training institute of this type are existing in different states. At Mussorie, there is Montessori teacher training programme in one institution. That type of training institutes are affiliated to association Montessori international. There are pre-basic teacher training schools which prepare teachers for pre-primary schools. These institutes are recognized by Hindustani Falimi sangh, Wardha. Some state governments also conduct this type of teacher training programmes. The universities of Jabalpur and Baroda run pre-primary teacher training course leading to certificate. At Chandigarh education department U.T. Administration is running such a course which is duly recognized by U.T Administration. In the state of Haryana about two decades back Haryana government had given affiliation for running this course of teacher training to Sohan Lal  D.A.V college of education, Ambala city. But then it was closed down by the government after the lapse of two-three years. At present a few schools and colleges of education in the state of Haryana are running one year N.T.T course meant for girls only who have qualified +2 examination. The said course is recognized by D.A.V college managing committee, New Delhi.
B.                 PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES
Primary teacher training institutes prepare teachers for teaching to the children of primary courses. These institutes prepare the students for junior basic training certificate (J.B.T). This training has been very popular almost in all the states earlier       this training was meant for male and female teachers who were matriculates. Recently some modifications have been made for giving training of J.B.T. After passing J.B.T the teacher is able to earn a teaching diploma. How the minimum qualification for training has been raised to 10+2 examination. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, this type of teacher training is sanctioned to government teacher training schools (or) district institute of education and training (D.I.E.T) with the revision of grades of all type of teachers, J.B.T training centers attract students of higher calibers and they possess higher qualifications
                          The National Commission of Teachers has recommended the introduction of integrated four year course for matriculates which will enable the teachers to earn teaching diploma for teaching primary classes
C.                  LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY TEACHERS
This type of teacher training programme prepares teachers for teaching Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit. This training is meant for those who are 10+2. It helps them to earn a teaching certificate called O.T (Hindi), O.T (Punjabi), O.T (Sanskrit)etc. This type of teacher training programme has been popular in government as well as non government institutes. At present, his course is being run in a very few institutes. The government has almost withdrawn its sanction to private recognized institutions.
D.                 COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS
                   Teacher training for secondary schools is given in the government as well as non-government colleges of education. These colleges prepare teachers for middle, high (or) secondary classes. Generally in these colleges it is one year course after B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc.
                   With the revision of grades of teachers, the college of education has started attracting students with good qualifications. In some states like Punjab , Rajasthan, entrance test have been introduced. In the state of Haryana, The minimum qualification for competing in the admission to B.Ed is 50% marks in B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc. Besides, entrance test is also held. Marks in both are added up and then merit list is prepared.
E.                  REGIONAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
                    N.C.E.R.T started its own regional colleges of education in four regions of the country to meet the shortage of teachers for technical subjects such as agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science, etc. The different regional colleges of education are as under:-
(i)               REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AJMER:-
It is meant for U.P, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. (Northern region)
(ii)            REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. MYSORE:-
         It is meant for south region which includes Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
(iii)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHOPAL:-
        It is meant for western states such as Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
(iv)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHUBNESWAR:-
       It is meant for eastern states such as Assam, Manipur, Bihar, West Bengal and Tripura.
F.                  TRAINING INSTITUTIONS FOR SPECIAL SUBJECT TEACHERS:-
The following training institutions prepare special subject teachers such as music, drawing, painting, fine arts, home science, etc.
(a) Viswa Bharathi University, Santhinikethan (W.Bengal)
(b) Institute of Art education, Jumia mitia, Delhi.
(c) Government school of art, Luck now
(d) Kala kshetra, Adayar, Madras
(e) One year diploma in physical education for graduates at Govt: physical college of education, Patiala
G. INSTITUTE FOR POST GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION
A) ONE YEAR M.ED COURSE: - this course is meant for those who have already passed B.Ed. It is carried in the universities in some selected colleges of education.
B) M.A IN EDUCATION: - Like other M.A it is a two year course for graduates. It is generally run by different universities. M.A in education is considered equal to M.Ed.
Post graduate diploma in education, N.C.E.R.T, and some universities are running post graduate diploma courses for greater efficiency of teachers. A few such courses are in the field of research methodology, educational and vocational guidance evaluation, audio-visual aids, social education, distances education etc. These courses are mostly for teachers who have passed B.Ed.
Special courses for teaching English are conducted by control institute of English and foreign languages, Hyderabad and regional institute of English.
H. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE:-        
Correspondence courses for teacher education have been started by some universities and colleges. The four regional colleges of education under N.C.E.R.T were the first to start this course. It is 14 month courses including four months training during two summer vacation.
H.P University, Simla started B.Ed and M.Ed courses in 1972. After one year, B.Ed courses through correspondence were stopped. Jammu University, the B.Ed correspondence course by Jammu University was meant      only for in-service teachers. In south, Annamalai University is running B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence course. Punjab University, Patiala also started B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence courses. But new B.Ed by correspondence ion large scale is banned by N.C.T.E
IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION – MEANING
                The moment a teacher has completed his training in a college of education, it does not mean that he is now trained for all times to come. A teaching degree, like B.Ed makes him enter into service as a teacher. Thereafter his job continues well only if he continues his studies everyday in the classroom situations and outside the classroom, he comes across problems and side by side he is a expected to sort them out. There is need of more and more knowledge, more and more education for making him a better teacher.
                 There are formal an informal programmes of in-service education organized from time to time. The higher authorities concerned with education want to ensure that the standards of education are properly maintained. That is possible only if the teachers refresh their knowledge and keep it up to the mark. The different agencies, therefore keep on organizing teacher education programmes for enriching the knowledge of teachers and also for over all proficiency and betterment.
             According to Lawrence, “In-service education is the education a teacher receives after he has entered to teaching profession and after he has had his education in a teacher’s college. It includes all the programmes – educational, social and others in which the teacher takes a virtual part, all the extra education which he receives at different institutions by way of refresher and other professional courses and travels and visits which he undertakes.
HISTORY OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
              In-service education and training of teachers has its own historical roots. Its journey from pre-independence to post independence period is characterized by numerous policy statements recommendations of different commissions regarding its content and strategies for implementation it has grown from a concept to a process and gained its importance for preparing teachers towards professional growth and development. The root of in-service education can be traced back to pre-independent period of 1904 in Lord Curzon’s resolution of educational policy which stated, “The trained students whom the college was sent out should be occasionally brought together again in seeing that the influence of the college makes itself felt in the school.” Hartorg committee and sergeant committee referred to in-service education as refresher courses and recommended for their organization on a continuing basis. The secondary education commission was more specific in recommending the programme of extension services for secondary teachers.
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
                 In our country, the trend is that once a teacher has joined service as a teacher, he continues to be so, through he may or may not study. It is not like that in countries like U.S.A. There the teacher has to face the screening committee to his re-appointment as a teacher after two or three years. In-service education is badly needed for all types of teachers in India. The following points indicate its need and importance. 
1. EDUCATION- A LIFELONG PROCESS:-
The teacher who does not study side by side can’t remain a good teacher. Training of a teacher is a lifelong process. He should continue making efforts in this direction for the whole life. Rabindra Nath Tagore has rightly stated, “A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its flame. “ According to secondary education commission “However, excellent the programme of teacher training may be, it does not by itself produce an excellent teacher. Increased efficiency will come through experience critically analyzed and through individual and group effort and improvement.
2. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH:-
        Every teacher is a expected to be professionally bound, for the professional growth, he always needs the guidance and help of others. The efficiency of the teachers must be covered up. So the teacher need be up to the mark in every way.
3. EDUCATION IS DYNAMIC:-
         Education is very dynamic. It depends upon the society which is fast changing.  Due to the advancement in the field of science and technology, there is explosion of knowledge. Accordingly the curriculum and syllabus are also being changed with a good speed. Continuous in-service education of the teacher can save the teacher from facing dire consequences.
4. MAKES DEMOCRATIC
            In-service education helps the teacher in becoming fully democratic. By in-service education programmes, the teacher is able to meet people of all types and he is also able to share his experience with others.
PROGRAMMES OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
 SEMINAR- In a seminar some problems of education are taken up and there is collective thinking. Discussions are held and conclusions are arrived at all under the guidance of some experts.
REFRESHER COURSES: - A refresher course means an educational programme organized for refreshing the knowledge of in-service teacher. Generally they acquire the teachers with the new development in the field of education. With the coming up of new education policy, refresher courses were arranged all around for teachers of different categories.
WORKSHOPS: - Workshops are organized for giving in-service education to teachers. They involve more of practical work and less theoretical discussion. These types of programmes are more useful for the teachers. The teachers have to work practically and come out with final materials to be seen by others. Organization of workshops consumes more time than a seminar or conference.
CONFERENCE: - In a conference, there is a broad discussion of subjects of practical interest. Generally there is a central theme around which several sub topics are given. Teachers as per their interest, present paper at the time of conference. The session ends with the concluding remarks of the president
 STUDY GROUPS: - Forming study groups and using them as a technique for in-service education for teachers can work wonders. A group of teachers of the same subject and a subject expert in the college of education are combined and start working. They choose some topics of common interest (or) it may be a problem related to their teaching subject. Discussion is started under guidance and they continue thinking, studying and discussing that subject. If need arises, someone may be invited for extension lecture. The study groups may be meeting once in a week or even once in a month.
A STUDY CENTRE OF PROFESSIONAL WRITINGS: - Generally the materials are not under the reach of teachers. The college of education, the extension service departments can help in this direction. Various publications of N.C.E.R.T, some good books, materials produced by different centers of education may be produced in the college library.  The study of reading materials will help the teacher to acquire sufficient knowledge in their subjects.
EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS: - The College of education should have their demonstration school and experimental school. These are actually practicing schools where some experiences can be performed. Whatever is taught in theory, which is put into practice by carrying out experiments?
             The experimental schools become centers of learning for in-service teachers. Innovations done in these schools may be advocated among the teaching staffs of other schools.
              Regional colleges of education affiliated to N.C.E.R.T have their experimental schools where those colleges are showing leadership to the working teachers of other schools in their areas. Other colleges have their practicing schools but they don’t have any experimental schools or demonstration schools.
CORRESPONDENCECOURSES:
Correspondence courses can be designed for giving in-service education to teachers. A few universities have already started working in the area of in-service teacher education programmes. Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages at Hyderabad provides post graduate certificate course and diploma course through correspondence.
OTHER PROGRAMMES: - A few programmes for in-service education of teachers are suggested below:-
·         Educational tours
·         Radio broadcast
·         Film shows
·         T.V programmes
·         Extension lecture for teachers
·         Exhibitions
·         Exchange of teachers
PROVISION OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: - Different institutions are functioning where there is a provision of in-service education of teachers.  Some of them are doing commendable work in this field.
STATE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (SIE):- In different states, SIE have been set up which cater to the need of in-service education only. They organize seminars, workshops, etc.
STATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE: - In some states, they have set up institutes for in-service education of science teachers. They make efforts for developing scientific attitudes among the teachers. Science exhibitions are also conducted there which attract large number of children from the state. Thus it’s a great source of inspiration for teachers and their students.
REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH: -
Regional institute of English has been set up in different regions of the country. They have their affiliation with Central Institute of English and Foreign languages; Hyderabad. These institutes impact four month certificate course in teaching English to in-service teachers. The institutes gives scholarship to the trainees and the teachers are paid full salary by the schools were they are employed. These institutes are working for efficiency and improvement of English teachers
CONCLUSION
             “Good education requires good teachers” that it becomes essential that the most capable and appropriate be recruited into the teaching profession, provided with high quality pre-service programme of teacher education, and them offered opportunities to upgrade their knowledge and skills over the full length of their career. It is, therefore, essential that there is major reorientation of teacher education to ensure that teachers are furnished with the necessary knowledge and skills to cope with the new demands placed on them. It is strange to note that too often teachers are helpless in front of machines which refuse to work. How undignified it is for the teacher to be thwarted by machines
               With the increased capacity of communication technology, language will become a very powerful instrument. The teacher-education programme should be strengthened to develop language competency among our teacher-taught. The modern time demands multi lingual competence including the new computer languages that are bound to emerge with expansion of computer-technology.
              Continuing teachers and other educators which commences after initial professional education is over and which leads to the improvement of professional competence of educators all throughout their careers.


READ ALSO : ROLE OF SCERT IN PROMOTING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION

                       : AIM OF EDUCATION

PRE-SERVICE AND IN SERVICE TRAINING FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT



INTRODUCTION
 According to Kothari commission, a teacher who unlike an ordinary worker, acts as a master, crafts man, an artist, a strategist and a powerful motivator. The environs of a classroom are enlivened by the inspiring, dynamic, enthusiastic, encouraging, skillful and dedicated teacher. It is he who shapes the destiny of students and that of the future citizens who eventually shape the destiny of the country. Such a teacher only can successfully in culture among children values that strengthen the ideals of social justice, equity, secularism and pluralism.

By its very definition, a professional, including a teacher is a lifelong learner because of his association with scientific knowledge which keeps growing and so opportunities have to be afforded to ensure that he keeps learning and developing throughout his professional life. This is precisely the responsibility of teacher education system which is more than a mere combination of two of its major components i.e. pre-service teacher preparation and in-service education.
Professional preparation and professional development of teachers is a continuous process. It begins with the selection of an aspirant teacher and includes his initial preparation induction into the profession and his continuous development throughout his teaching carrier. The formulation of policy and design of teacher preparation and continuing professional development should optimally take into account the whole spectrum of teacher learning. 
PRE-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION, MEANING AND SIGNIFICANCE
                  Pre-service education of teacher means, education of teachers before they enter into service as teacher. During this period of teacher education programmes, teaching practice goes side by side, while they are getting knowledge about theory papers. 
A good deal of improvement in the teacher education programme is needed. Pre-service education is carried on for preparing different types of teachers. Pre-service teacher preparation is a collection of unrelated courses and field experience. Research based curriculum development of pre-service teacher education is yet to take roots. These programmes are intended to support and enhance teacher learning instill in them a greater degree of self confidence. The beginning teachers in this case learn from their practice and from the culture and norms of the unique school settings where in they have been placed and interact with these cultures.
                It is important for teacher educators to learn the methodology of how to get in touch with the core qualities of a good teacher and how they can stimulate these qualities in student teachers. This will lead to a deeper involvement in the learning process of teacher educators as well as student teachers. The inclusion of appropriate content knowledge about essential qualities of a good teacher in relevant theory papers and practice of effective domain related traits in school situation for a longer duration could help promote these traits in student teachers. The teacher education programme needs to allow the space where in a teacher’s personality could be developed as someone who is reflective, introspective and capable of analyzing his or her own life and the process of education at school so that after becoming a teacher, he becomes an agent of change.
A.                 PRE-PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME.
 Here teachers are trained for teaching children of pre-primary classes. This type of teacher training is generally called nursery teacher training (N.T.T). Teacher training institute of this type are existing in different states. At Mussorie, there is Montessori teacher training programme in one institution. That type of training institutes are affiliated to association Montessori international. There are pre-basic teacher training schools which prepare teachers for pre-primary schools. These institutes are recognized by Hindustani Falimi sangh, Wardha. Some state governments also conduct this type of teacher training programmes. The universities of Jabalpur and Baroda run pre-primary teacher training course leading to certificate. At Chandigarh education department U.T. Administration is running such a course which is duly recognized by U.T Administration. In the state of Haryana about two decades back Haryana government had given affiliation for running this course of teacher training to Sohan Lal  D.A.V college of education, Ambala city. But then it was closed down by the government after the lapse of two-three years. At present a few schools and colleges of education in the state of Haryana are running one year N.T.T course meant for girls only who have qualified +2 examination. The said course is recognized by D.A.V college managing committee, New Delhi.
B.                 PRIMARY TEACHER TRAINING INSTITUTES
Primary teacher training institutes prepare teachers for teaching to the children of primary courses. These institutes prepare the students for junior basic training certificate (J.B.T). This training has been very popular almost in all the states earlier       this training was meant for male and female teachers who were matriculates. Recently some modifications have been made for giving training of J.B.T. After passing J.B.T the teacher is able to earn a teaching diploma. How the minimum qualification for training has been raised to 10+2 examination. In the states of Punjab and Haryana, this type of teacher training is sanctioned to government teacher training schools (or) district institute of education and training (D.I.E.T) with the revision of grades of all type of teachers, J.B.T training centers attract students of higher calibers and they possess higher qualifications
                          The National Commission of Teachers has recommended the introduction of integrated four year course for matriculates which will enable the teachers to earn teaching diploma for teaching primary classes
C.                  LANGUAGES PROFICIENCY TEACHERS
This type of teacher training programme prepares teachers for teaching Hindi, Punjabi and Sanskrit. This training is meant for those who are 10+2. It helps them to earn a teaching certificate called O.T (Hindi), O.T (Punjabi), O.T (Sanskrit)etc. This type of teacher training programme has been popular in government as well as non government institutes. At present, his course is being run in a very few institutes. The government has almost withdrawn its sanction to private recognized institutions.
D.                 COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS
                   Teacher training for secondary schools is given in the government as well as non-government colleges of education. These colleges prepare teachers for middle, high (or) secondary classes. Generally in these colleges it is one year course after B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc.
                   With the revision of grades of teachers, the college of education has started attracting students with good qualifications. In some states like Punjab , Rajasthan, entrance test have been introduced. In the state of Haryana, The minimum qualification for competing in the admission to B.Ed is 50% marks in B.A/B.Sc or M.A/M.Sc. Besides, entrance test is also held. Marks in both are added up and then merit list is prepared.
E.                  REGIONAL COLLEGES OF EDUCATION
                    N.C.E.R.T started its own regional colleges of education in four regions of the country to meet the shortage of teachers for technical subjects such as agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science, etc. The different regional colleges of education are as under:-
(i)               REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, AJMER:-
It is meant for U.P, Haryana, Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. (Northern region)
(ii)            REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION. MYSORE:-
         It is meant for south region which includes Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala.
(iii)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHOPAL:-
        It is meant for western states such as Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat
(iv)          REGIONAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, BHUBNESWAR:-
       It is meant for eastern states such as Assam, Manipur, Bihar, West Bengal and Tripura.
F.                  TRAINING INSTITUTIONS FOR SPECIAL SUBJECT TEACHERS:-
The following training institutions prepare special subject teachers such as music, drawing, painting, fine arts, home science, etc.
(a) Viswa Bharathi University, Santhinikethan (W.Bengal)
(b) Institute of Art education, Jumia mitia, Delhi.
(c) Government school of art, Luck now
(d) Kala kshetra, Adayar, Madras
(e) One year diploma in physical education for graduates at Govt: physical college of education, Patiala
G. INSTITUTE FOR POST GRADUATE TEACHER EDUCATION
A) ONE YEAR M.ED COURSE: - this course is meant for those who have already passed B.Ed. It is carried in the universities in some selected colleges of education.
B) M.A IN EDUCATION: - Like other M.A it is a two year course for graduates. It is generally run by different universities. M.A in education is considered equal to M.Ed.
Post graduate diploma in education, N.C.E.R.T, and some universities are running post graduate diploma courses for greater efficiency of teachers. A few such courses are in the field of research methodology, educational and vocational guidance evaluation, audio-visual aids, social education, distances education etc. These courses are mostly for teachers who have passed B.Ed.
Special courses for teaching English are conducted by control institute of English and foreign languages, Hyderabad and regional institute of English.
H. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE:-        
Correspondence courses for teacher education have been started by some universities and colleges. The four regional colleges of education under N.C.E.R.T were the first to start this course. It is 14 month courses including four months training during two summer vacation.
H.P University, Simla started B.Ed and M.Ed courses in 1972. After one year, B.Ed courses through correspondence were stopped. Jammu University, the B.Ed correspondence course by Jammu University was meant      only for in-service teachers. In south, Annamalai University is running B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence course. Punjab University, Patiala also started B.Ed and M.Ed correspondence courses. But new B.Ed by correspondence ion large scale is banned by N.C.T.E
IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION – MEANING
                The moment a teacher has completed his training in a college of education, it does not mean that he is now trained for all times to come. A teaching degree, like B.Ed makes him enter into service as a teacher. Thereafter his job continues well only if he continues his studies everyday in the classroom situations and outside the classroom, he comes across problems and side by side he is a expected to sort them out. There is need of more and more knowledge, more and more education for making him a better teacher.
                 There are formal an informal programmes of in-service education organized from time to time. The higher authorities concerned with education want to ensure that the standards of education are properly maintained. That is possible only if the teachers refresh their knowledge and keep it up to the mark. The different agencies, therefore keep on organizing teacher education programmes for enriching the knowledge of teachers and also for over all proficiency and betterment.
             According to Lawrence, “In-service education is the education a teacher receives after he has entered to teaching profession and after he has had his education in a teacher’s college. It includes all the programmes – educational, social and others in which the teacher takes a virtual part, all the extra education which he receives at different institutions by way of refresher and other professional courses and travels and visits which he undertakes.
HISTORY OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
              In-service education and training of teachers has its own historical roots. Its journey from pre-independence to post independence period is characterized by numerous policy statements recommendations of different commissions regarding its content and strategies for implementation it has grown from a concept to a process and gained its importance for preparing teachers towards professional growth and development. The root of in-service education can be traced back to pre-independent period of 1904 in Lord Curzon’s resolution of educational policy which stated, “The trained students whom the college was sent out should be occasionally brought together again in seeing that the influence of the college makes itself felt in the school.” Hartorg committee and sergeant committee referred to in-service education as refresher courses and recommended for their organization on a continuing basis. The secondary education commission was more specific in recommending the programme of extension services for secondary teachers.
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
                 In our country, the trend is that once a teacher has joined service as a teacher, he continues to be so, through he may or may not study. It is not like that in countries like U.S.A. There the teacher has to face the screening committee to his re-appointment as a teacher after two or three years. In-service education is badly needed for all types of teachers in India. The following points indicate its need and importance. 
1. EDUCATION- A LIFELONG PROCESS:-
The teacher who does not study side by side can’t remain a good teacher. Training of a teacher is a lifelong process. He should continue making efforts in this direction for the whole life. Rabindra Nath Tagore has rightly stated, “A lamp can never light another lamp unless it continues to burn its flame. “ According to secondary education commission “However, excellent the programme of teacher training may be, it does not by itself produce an excellent teacher. Increased efficiency will come through experience critically analyzed and through individual and group effort and improvement.
2. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH:-
        Every teacher is a expected to be professionally bound, for the professional growth, he always needs the guidance and help of others. The efficiency of the teachers must be covered up. So the teacher need be up to the mark in every way.
3. EDUCATION IS DYNAMIC:-
         Education is very dynamic. It depends upon the society which is fast changing.  Due to the advancement in the field of science and technology, there is explosion of knowledge. Accordingly the curriculum and syllabus are also being changed with a good speed. Continuous in-service education of the teacher can save the teacher from facing dire consequences.
4. MAKES DEMOCRATIC
            In-service education helps the teacher in becoming fully democratic. By in-service education programmes, the teacher is able to meet people of all types and he is also able to share his experience with others.
PROGRAMMES OF IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION
 SEMINAR- In a seminar some problems of education are taken up and there is collective thinking. Discussions are held and conclusions are arrived at all under the guidance of some experts.
REFRESHER COURSES: - A refresher course means an educational programme organized for refreshing the knowledge of in-service teacher. Generally they acquire the teachers with the new development in the field of education. With the coming up of new education policy, refresher courses were arranged all around for teachers of different categories.
WORKSHOPS: - Workshops are organized for giving in-service education to teachers. They involve more of practical work and less theoretical discussion. These types of programmes are more useful for the teachers. The teachers have to work practically and come out with final materials to be seen by others. Organization of workshops consumes more time than a seminar or conference.
CONFERENCE: - In a conference, there is a broad discussion of subjects of practical interest. Generally there is a central theme around which several sub topics are given. Teachers as per their interest, present paper at the time of conference. The session ends with the concluding remarks of the president
 STUDY GROUPS: - Forming study groups and using them as a technique for in-service education for teachers can work wonders. A group of teachers of the same subject and a subject expert in the college of education are combined and start working. They choose some topics of common interest (or) it may be a problem related to their teaching subject. Discussion is started under guidance and they continue thinking, studying and discussing that subject. If need arises, someone may be invited for extension lecture. The study groups may be meeting once in a week or even once in a month.
A STUDY CENTRE OF PROFESSIONAL WRITINGS: - Generally the materials are not under the reach of teachers. The college of education, the extension service departments can help in this direction. Various publications of N.C.E.R.T, some good books, materials produced by different centers of education may be produced in the college library.  The study of reading materials will help the teacher to acquire sufficient knowledge in their subjects.
EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOLS: - The College of education should have their demonstration school and experimental school. These are actually practicing schools where some experiences can be performed. Whatever is taught in theory, which is put into practice by carrying out experiments?
             The experimental schools become centers of learning for in-service teachers. Innovations done in these schools may be advocated among the teaching staffs of other schools.
              Regional colleges of education affiliated to N.C.E.R.T have their experimental schools where those colleges are showing leadership to the working teachers of other schools in their areas. Other colleges have their practicing schools but they don’t have any experimental schools or demonstration schools.
CORRESPONDENCECOURSES:
Correspondence courses can be designed for giving in-service education to teachers. A few universities have already started working in the area of in-service teacher education programmes. Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages at Hyderabad provides post graduate certificate course and diploma course through correspondence.
OTHER PROGRAMMES: - A few programmes for in-service education of teachers are suggested below:-
·         Educational tours
·         Radio broadcast
·         Film shows
·         T.V programmes
·         Extension lecture for teachers
·         Exhibitions
·         Exchange of teachers
PROVISION OF IN-SERVICE EDUCATION: - Different institutions are functioning where there is a provision of in-service education of teachers.  Some of them are doing commendable work in this field.
STATE INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (SIE):- In different states, SIE have been set up which cater to the need of in-service education only. They organize seminars, workshops, etc.
STATE INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE: - In some states, they have set up institutes for in-service education of science teachers. They make efforts for developing scientific attitudes among the teachers. Science exhibitions are also conducted there which attract large number of children from the state. Thus it’s a great source of inspiration for teachers and their students.
REGIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH: -
Regional institute of English has been set up in different regions of the country. They have their affiliation with Central Institute of English and Foreign languages; Hyderabad. These institutes impact four month certificate course in teaching English to in-service teachers. The institutes gives scholarship to the trainees and the teachers are paid full salary by the schools were they are employed. These institutes are working for efficiency and improvement of English teachers
CONCLUSION
             “Good education requires good teachers” that it becomes essential that the most capable and appropriate be recruited into the teaching profession, provided with high quality pre-service programme of teacher education, and them offered opportunities to upgrade their knowledge and skills over the full length of their career. It is, therefore, essential that there is major reorientation of teacher education to ensure that teachers are furnished with the necessary knowledge and skills to cope with the new demands placed on them. It is strange to note that too often teachers are helpless in front of machines which refuse to work. How undignified it is for the teacher to be thwarted by machines
               With the increased capacity of communication technology, language will become a very powerful instrument. The teacher-education programme should be strengthened to develop language competency among our teacher-taught. The modern time demands multi lingual competence including the new computer languages that are bound to emerge with expansion of computer-technology.
              Continuing teachers and other educators which commences after initial professional education is over and which leads to the improvement of professional competence of educators all throughout their careers.


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                       : AIM OF EDUCATION