Showing posts with label CONTINUING EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label CONTINUING EDUCATION. Show all posts
INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.

FORMAL EDUCATION AND ALTERNATIVES OF FORMAL EDUCATION

INTRODUCTION
The word education is derived from the Latin word Educatum which means the act of teaching or training. There is another word in Latin that is Educare which means to bring up or to raise. The word Educare means to lead forth or to come out. All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in man and draw out the best in man.Education helps to develop the inner capacities of man.

  By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitude and critical thinking. That is he acquires knowledge of history, geography, arithmetic, languages and other sciences. By education people develops some understandings about the deeper things in life, complex human relations and cause and effect of relationships etc. The person gets some skillsinwriting, speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipments etc.
     Education is necessary for the survival of the society. It is a purposeful activity. The aims of education will vary from time to time and from people to people. Educational aims can be immediate and ultimate. Immediate aims are those which fulfill the immediate needs. The ultimate aim of education is the perfect happiness.
Education has been classified into three types,
1. Formal education
2. Informal education
3. Non-formal education  
                                                                               
FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal education refers to the hierarchically structured and chronologically graded system of education. It is consciously and deliberately planned system of education to bring about specific behavioral changes in the educand. It is preplanned by the society with definite aims and is imparted in schools, colleges and universities, which are established for systematic education.
FEATURES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
v  Planned education keeping in keeping in view some definite plan.
v  Education imparted through well planned means.
v  Education starting and ending at particular age.
v  A teaching learning process with which the teacher and learner are acquainted.
v  Education organised by some agency.
AGENCIES OF FORMAL EDUCATION
Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are systematically organized. In these institutions the process of education is deliberately planned. There is a definite curriculum. The whole process is manipulated with a definite objective for the fulfillment of the needs of the society. The schools, colleges, universities etc are the important agencies of formal education.
1.                 SCHOOLS
The term school denotes a particular place, where education is imparted in a definite way. The school goes a long way in reforming the individual and society. So the school is considered not merely a creature of the society, but it is the creator of the society. In modern age the role of school is very important. The main functions of schools are;
a) School is the savior of culture traditions.
 b) School helps to achieve the ideal of the nation.
c) School can give a glimpse of practical democracy.
d) School provides an opportunity for the development of individual powers and abilities.
e) School takes the responsibility of social reconstruction.
f) School tries to make us ideal citizens.
   2. COLLEGES
College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a degree awarding tertiary educational institutions, a part of collegiate university, or an institution offering vocational education. In India the term college is commonly reserved for institutions that offer degrees at year 12 and those that offer the bachelors degree. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation.                                          
3. UNIVERSITY
 A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and post graduate education. Universities are generally composed of several colleges.
FUNCTIONS OF FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Character formation of children
2. Development of values in children
3. Helps the children in development and transmission of knowledge
4. Helps in skill and emotional development
5. Children get the capacity to adjust
6. Formal education helps in cultural development
7. It gives spiritual as well as moral development
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
A large proportion of India’s population is poor and live in pathetic conditions. Education, in any form needs improve their quality of life and help them participate productively in the national development. A large proportion of children dropout from the formal system .The non formal educational system has been introduced to bring the un-enrolled and dropout children of age group 9-14 into the fold of primary education.                                                                           
              For Coombs non-formal education means, any organized systematic, educational activity outside the framework of the formal system to provide selective types of learning to particular sub-groups in the population, adults as well as children”. In other words it is an alternative to the formal education.
              Unlike the formal education, non-formal education has no predetermined time table or the pace of academic progress. The non-formal education is basically non-competitive and open ended. It has limited purposes and goals..
 FEATURES OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1.                  Flexibility in regard to admission requirements,duration,timing etc
2.                  Flexibility in various aspects of  education.ie.,admission,place,curriculum,age,co-curricular activities,modes of teaching,evaluation etc
3.                  Diversification of curriculum and instructional methods;in the type of course to be offered and their supplimetation by vocational education.
4.                  Decentralization in management structure and financial powers.
5.                  Covering life span of an individual.
6.                  Guided by motivation of the individual for self growth,self renewal.
MAJOR NON-FORMAL SCHEMES
1.OPEN SYSTEM
A.DISTANCE EDUCATION                                                      
           Distance education can be defined as the system of education in which education is imparted to students from a distance. It contains two physical elements (a) physical separation of the teacher and the student (b)changed role of the teacher. Distance education methods can be successfully used for relating to groups who, for geographical, economic or social reasons are unable or unwilling to make use of traditional or conventional provision of education. Distance education can never be formal as it is a nontraditional innovative method of education, employing a multimedia approach including human contact. In fact the distance mode allows the educational system to be open and the educational openness of the systems suits the promotion of distance education.
BENEFITS OF DISTANCE MODE OF EDUCATION
v  It increases access to higher education, especially for         women, working population, the deprived groups and those living in remote areas.
v  It provides a second chance to those who could not make it when young.
v  It offers course with ample options of subjects and electives.
v  It helps in phasing out the study as per changes in official, family or personal situations in one’s life.
v  It provides tenability of accumulating credits by successfully completing one or more subjects of a course.
The process of recruiting individuals in Distance Education situation is different from that of other educational institutions, as the individuals joining have an extremely blurred idea of their profile. Most Distance Education seeks quality education, but is unable to meet their expectations when compared to direct teaching knowledge acquisition should be a transparent process.
B. CORRESPONDENCE COURSE
     It was in the third five year plan (GOI 1961-1966) that the planning commission took serious note of such a need and referred to the need for correspondence education. The commission was stressed that if deterioration in quality was to be avoided, an increase in the number of students should be accompanied by a corresponding expansion of physical and other leading facilities. It was in this context that proposals for evening colleges, correspondence courses and award of external degrees were considered.
     The Kothari commission recommended the institutions of correspondence course in view of the greater flexibility, economic viability and the innovative method of imparting education through well prepared, pre-tested and constantly revised course materials. In ordrer to maintain the educational standards, It also felt that some training and continuing guidance should be provided to prepare self instructional study materials. There should be personal contact between the teacher and the student for about three weeks in a year.
      Improvement of qualifications and the desire to continue with higher education were identified as major motivating factors for joining the correspondence course. Non-availability of time, mental maturity, and non-existence of colleges in the locality, heavy, age, employment, paucity of time, poor financial conditions and poor performance in the last qualifying exams were found to be some other additional reasons.
Some of the limitations which contributed to the ineffectiveness of correspondence education in India are:
         a) Most of the correspondence institutions do not have    competent and adequate staff. As a result they have low motivation.
   b) Lessons are prepared with a hurry with no regard to quality
   c) Not much attention is paid to the assignments; they are not    evaluated, corrected and returned to the students in time.
  D) Most of the correspondence courses do not have study centers and personal contact programmes are organized by only a few institutions.
e) Too much reliance is placed on the printed material and latest communication technology is hardly used.
f) There is considerable delay in the dispatch of lessons to the students.
C. OPEN UNIVERSITY
       In view of the deficiencies of correspondence education, the open education system was introduced in the country. In fact it may be said that the introduction of the Open University system is a direct outcome of the conventional system and of the correspondence course institutions to deliver the goods. Another important concern was the improvement of the quality of higher education. The first Open University established on 26 August 1982 and now it is known as Dr.Ambedkar Open University.                                                           
THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
1. To reverse the tide of admission in formal institutions.
2. To offer education to people in their own homes and at their own jobs.
3. To enable the students to earn while they learn.
4. To provide counseling and guidance to people.
5. To take education to the remotest villages, through radio, television and correspondence courses.
FEATURES OF OPEN UNIVERSITY
v  Relaxed entry requirements
v  Flexibility in course combination
v  Use of multimedia communication teconology for furthering learning objective
v  Provision of support services to medicate the learning process
v  Individualised study; flexibility of pace, place of study etc.
    Open universities have made a beginning in democratizing higher educational opportunities for large segment of population and also for those who have been denied education through conventional education system.
2. LITERACY PROGRAMMES
Literacy is the conventional sense of being able to read and write. In essence, literacy is the facility of using in all its forms like reading, writing and oral communication, besides some basics of arithmetic. The lowest limit of literacy is the ability to read and write one’s own name and a few other words.

MASS LITERACY PROGRAMME
Mass literacy programme is an intentionally initiated movement by the government of India to make literate, the masses of Indian population. It was an attempt to make 80 million people literate between the age group of 15-35 by the year 1995.The main target areas and groups were rural people, women, SCs, STs and who left out of the formal systems.
NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
National Literacy Mission was set up by the government of India on 5 May 1988 with an aim to eradicate illiteracy in the country by imparting functional literacy to non-literates. Thus, National Literacy Mission was established not only to make everybody just reliant in the 3R’s-reading,writing,arithmetic-but also to make them aware of the development issues affecting the society. The target group of National Literacy Mission is people between the age of 15 and 35.
The National Literacy Mission initiated its first successful literacy campaign in Kottayam city followed by Ernakulam district.
TOTAL LITERACY CAMPAIGN
     Total Literacy Campaign is now accepted as the dominant strategy for eradication of adult illiteracy in India. These campaigns are area-specific, time bound, volunteer-based, cost-effective and outcome-oriented. The thrust is on the attainment of functional literacy through the prescribed norms of literacy and numeracy. The learner is the focal point in the entire process. Through Total Literacy Campaign is meant to impart functional literacy .It also disseminates a basket of other socially relevant messages such as enrolment  and retention of children in schools, immunisation, propagation of small family norms, women’s equality and empowerment.
ADULT EDUCATION
  For very large number of adults in the world today,adult education is a substitute for the basic education they missed.For the many individuals they received only a very incomplete education,it is the complement to elementary or professional education.It offers further education to those who have already received high level training and it is a means for the individual development  for everybody.
NEEDS AND IMPORTANCE OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  To widen the intellectual horizon of the illiterate adult,who are partially illiterate.
v  It gives new hopes to illiterate.
v  It can help the adult in co-operative living.
v  Continuing education
v  The adult education programme can help for the progress of compulsory primary   education.
SOME PROBLEMS OF ADULT EDUCATION
v  Defective policy of adult education
v  Want of proper planning
v  Problem of curriculum
v  Problem of method of teaching
v  Problem of administration
3. EXTENSION EDUCATION
Extension education is an out-of-school process which aims at helping people to help themselves in solving their problems. The gramasevak teaches people how to solve their problems. Gramasevak is a teacher of people. Extension education helps people to help them in solving their present and future economic, social and cultural problems. It helps both adult and youth. The ultimate aim of the help through extension education is a greater satisfaction in life.
1. AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
          Agricultural extension is a general term meaning the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education.
 2. INDUSTRY EXTENSION
         It is extending the knowledge on managing and running industries.
3. VETERINARY AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY EXTENSION
      It is extending knowledge about breeding, managing, feeding and care of animals and birds.
4. HOME SCIENCE EXTENSION
         Special programmes normally given to girls related to home management, home arrangement including interior decoration.
5. SOCIAL EDUCATION
     Social education is the education of society or community
FUNCTIONS OF NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
1. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty
2. Development of technical skills
3. Chear the educational needs of the drop-outs
4. Development of social responsibility
5. Empowerment of women
6. Social uplift
7. Economic development
8. Universal education
9. Upliftment of marginalized and special care to weaker groups
10. Development of vocational competencies
  CONCLUSION
Formal education is a systematic, pre-planned and chronologically graded system and is offered through schools, colleges, universities; independent research organizations or any other definite institutions. Non-formal education mainly aims the out-of-school children, unemployed youth and illiterates. There are many schemes for non-formal education. Non-formal educational system is helpful for those who cannot make use of the conservative system of formal education. Non-formal education has a major role in moulding the society.


INTRODUCTION
How does an electric bulb light up? Why does it take such a short time cook “dal” in a pressure cooker? What is the area of your room? The answers to these and to other similar questions of everyday life cannot be given if the person is ignorant and not educated even in such simple things which one comes across every day. It is learning of information skills, and ideas that make a person knowledgeable and thus a useful member of the society. Education is change in behavior and improvement in abilities, when ignorance is changed into knowledge and awareness. The unskilled becomes skilled and his values, appreciations and outlook on life also change in a more positive way. Education meaning change in behavior and attitudes need not necessarily be through formal schooling; it can also be imparted in a non-formal setting. When education is imparted in a free atmosphere, without the rigidity of rules and regulations associated with school or college education it is termed as non formal education (NFE). Non Formal education imparts depth and meaning to that work of the recipient which he is already doing, or wants to do and thereby can make him more efficient and quite likely much more productive also. The non-formal approach to education can be described as the absence of a formal and captive way of teaching and evaluating. Non-formal education emphasizes learning. In the non-formal education; it is not necessary to put work into education because, most of the persons coming for non-formal education would already be working. Therefore; non-formal education is built around the work of the people who take up non-formal education. It enables the learner to increase his productivity in terms of output and also to improve the quality of the work in which he/she is already engaged. The large proportion of India’s population is poor; living in rural as well as urban areas. They live in pathetic conditions. Education in any form needs to be provided to them to improve their quality of life and to help them to participate productively in the national development. The formal education system; because of its rigid chronologically graded structure; excludes the poor from its advantages. The non-formal education, which is flexible and relevant to the lives of illiterates and the poor, needs to be encouraged. Formally educated persons can also continue their education for either self-development or higher professional advancement in a non-formal way.
Though, the basic concept of non-formal education is simple, educationalists responsible for its operation has developed academic objectives for this form of education also. The academicians have introduced such objectives not only to explain the concept of non-formal education, but also as a reminder of the dissimilarities in formal and non-formal education. Some of the academic objectives of the NFE are described below;
·                     To educate the dropouts from formal education
·                     To raise the extent of functional literacy
·                     To prepare individual for self-employment
·                     To retain adults for the changing requirements of jobs and family life.
·                     To complement formal education in a country of largely uneducated people
·                     To provide life-long education.
CENTERS FOR NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
In several Indian Universities, centers of adults and continuing educator have been established. These centers provide many forms of non-formal education; with varied contents. Besides, the university centers of non-formal education, the Industries, voluntary organizations, state governments, religious bodies, families and individuals also carry on a variety of NFE. Considering the extent of demands in the non-formal contents, the status of NFE is valid; desirable and is improving.
Even before 1995, when NFE was launched in a big way, several efforts were made by the government and other agencies to remove illiteracy. Some voluntary agencies, particularly some Christian missionary groups, made pioneering efforts to make children and adults illiterate, but they were not particularly successful because of the enormity of the problem and the severe economic and social constraints. Eradication of illiteracy was attempted through free and compulsory formal education.
Mass Literacy Movement, social education and other schemes were introduced, but all showed poor results. In the 1970’s NFE was widely suggested and illiteracy was the attacked through the non-formal approach. A major scheme was launched in 1975 to develop a large scale programme of NFE for under privileged children, youths and adults.  These programmes were meant to be related to the needs and the aspirations of the learners and were to be based on local environmental conditions. This was an attempt to reach the deprived and the disadvantaged outside the formal system of education. The government of India became interested in the advancement of literacy education after independence and some steps were taken to introduce adult education. But, the progress had been slow and tardy. With growing awareness that economic and social development are linked to literacy and education, the drive for literacy has received a fresh impact.
Post literacy is defined as programmes which aims are to maintain and enhance basic literacy, Numeracy and problem solving skills, giving individuals sufficient general basic work skills enabling them to function effectively in their societies.
POST-LITERACY PROCESSES
This idea generally refers to processes and activities especially developed for neo-literates, which are designed to help them become fully functionally literate and to be autonomous learners. The essential aims are to prevent regression to semi-literacy or worse and to develop those higher-level literacy skills which are essential for autonomy in learning. Such skills include context vocabulary building, increased general know ledge and its application, and the development of skills in integrating concepts into cognitive systems (schema). It is especially important to develop higher skills of critical reading and to foster skills in independent problem-solving.
Post-literacy programmes are designed for adults who want to strengthen their literacy skills. They may be immigrants, slum dwellers or elderly rural poor. In ail activities the objective is to sustain interest in learning and prevent regression. Literacy regression is common in any society and it is described as follows:
LITERACY REGRESSION
This term refers to the situation where learners, having reached a certain level or grade equivalent within a literacy programme, fall to proceed beyond that grade, lose skills and knowledge and revert to a lower grade of skill and functional knowledge; individuals who are semi-literate may revert to almost or complete illiteracy. Individuals who are almost at the neo-literate stage may revert to semi-literacy and so on. Among school pupils, it is well documerited that children who drop-out of formal education before reaching school grade V are likely to regress to almost complete or total illiteracy. Among adults, the boundary is less well-defined but premature withdrawal from adult literacy programmes inevitably leads to regression. The main problem among such people is motivation, which underlines the importance of including functional knowledge of direct and immediate relevance to the learners. Motivational aspects and the problem of regression have considerable implications for continuing education.
Post-literacy programme provide the point of «take-off» in a continuing education system. Without it, continuing education has little meaning to neo-literates or semiliterate rates. The aim of post literacy programmes is to consolidate the basic literacy skills of speaking, reading, writing, numeracy and problem solving while at same time overtly or covertly transforming the learners into an educated whole person, who is a productive socio-economic asset to the community- bale to participate actively and productively in a nations processes of Development.
In education many terms are used and many, such as the term post-1iteracy, have acquired a range of meanings. Some of these terms refer to concepts, some to «systems» some to «processes» and some to programmes. By concept is meant a general ideas or notion; and by process is meant a method of operation or a state of carrying on a procedure. By programme Is meant a structured series of learning events designed to develop concepts to foster the development of process skills and to achieve specified outcomes. Programmes may be available through the formal, non-formal or informal education channels.
a) Related Educational Concepts and their Expression in Programmes Relevant concepts to be considered in relation to the term post-literacy include the following:
i) LITERACY
This is generally to mean the ability to read, write and apply numeracy skills. Vagueness in the definition relates to some disagreement about what level or skill should be acquired before an individual can be said to be literate. Modern definitions tend to focus on competency and a literate person is perceived to be one who has sufficient reading, writing and numeracy skills to be able to continue to learn alone without the continuing guidance of a teacher.
Post-literacy programmes ensure that participants who have at one time reached such a level of competence, but have not adequately accepted the challenge to continue to learn, or even worse, may be in danger of regressing to partial literacy, in fact consolidate their literacy skills and advance to higher levels of competence.
ii) FUNCTIONAL LITERACY
There is a general consensus about the meaning of this term. Programmes concerned only with reading, writing and calculating for their own sake have little meaning. Functional literacy includes the development of these traditional literacy abilities, but it ensures that such development occurs in areas reflecting the socioeconomic and cultural needs of the learners. The emphasis is on directly usable knowledge. Reading, writing and numeracy skills develop with these goals sharply in focus.
Basic literacy programmes should build both technical literacy skills and functional knowledge. What people learn to read, write and calculate   becomes   equally   as   important   as   technical literacy skill, and the development of one aspect adds to the development of the other. All continuing education seen through this definition is functional.
iii) LEVEL ON GRADES OF LITERACY
The traditional way to define “level of literacy was in terms of functional measures and grade equivalents, using the formal educational system as a standard. There is little international agreement, however, about what should constitute the levels or stages of achievement in developing literacy skills and functional knowledge from illiteracy to the achievement of basic literacy. This is partly understandable because of the contrasted problems posed by different languages and cultures.
 iv) SEMI-LITERACY
This can be defined as a stage in literacy development, which may meet the technical requirements of the final grade of a literacy training programme but beyond which progress is inhibited. The failure to proceed further may be motivational, an absence of willingness to continue to learn without the guidance of a teacher; it may be because of some inherent ability problem or because of some gap or block in achievement. Semi-literacy is a major problem in many societies, including those of developed countries such as Australia, U.K. and U.S.A. Semi-literates are usually functionally illiterate. That is while .being basically literate in a technical sense, they cannot apply their literacy skills in everyday life. 
v) NEO-LITERACY
This term is well-known and fairly non- controversial. A neo literate is an individual who has completed a basic literacy training programs and has demonstrated the ability and willingness to continue to learn on his/her own using the skills and knowledge attained without the direct guidance of a literacy teacher. It is important to stress that technical achievement is not sufficient for an individual to be classed as a neo- literate. He or she needs to have the ability and willingness to continue as an independent learner. Post- literacy programmes are not only for semi-literates, but also for neo-literates who do not proceed beyond formal primary schooling or its equivalent.
vi)ADEQUATE FUNCTIONAL LITERACY
 By 'adequate' we could perhaps consider levels of competence and functional knowledge that facilitate an individual's personal development and his or her development as a member of society, and which help to maximize his or her contribution to the positive development of society, in other words, adequate functional literacy represents a staking off point from which an individual can grow and increasingly contributes to an improved quality of life.
A key aim of programmes of post-literacy is to ensure that participants become adequately functional literates. Adequate functional literacy is a pre-requisite for autonomous learning and the development of a learning society.
vii) AUTONOMOUS LEARNING
The idea of autonomous learning is a much more sophisticated concept than the Idea of simply being and willing to learn on your own, which is the concept used to define a neo-literate. The concept implies not just an autonomous learner but an autonomous person. At an autonomous stage of personal development, education is seen as leading to creativity, self-fulfillment and deeper values; it is seen as an on-going process. It is characterized by a learning style that probes for increasing complexity, complex patterns, toleration for ambiguity and development of broad views of the world and reflects a respect for objectivity.
This concept clearly implies that if a learning society to be effective, the opportunities provided by it must be accepted and utilized by its citizens. Only autonomous learners can take maximum advantage of such opportunities, so that evaluation of a learning society depends on the development of autonomous learning. This is a major challenge for continuing education, and especially for programmes of post-literacy with their aim of achieving not only learning autonomy, but the development of an autonomous person.
Three well-known terms of particular relevance to post-literacy are as follows:
i) LIFE-LONG LEARNING
In 1976, the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the following definition of life-long learning. The term life-long education and learning denotes an overall scheme aimed at restructuring the existing educational system and at developing the entire educational potential outside the education system; in such a scheme men and women are the agents of their own education. This definition contains three basic ideas:
a) The entire formal educational sub-system should be restructured to develop life-long learners;
b)The non-formal and informal education sub-sectors should be developed and utilized to the fullest extent;
c) The importance of autonomous learning is stressed.
According to this view, life-long learning is a process that involves purposive, directed learning not merely incidental learning. Post-literacy programmes are enabling forces to give participants the motivation, knowledge, skills and values required for them to undertake self-motivated lifelong learning.
ii) ADULT EDUCATION
Adult education programmes should be seen as a sub-set of lifelong learning. Adult education has been defined as engaging in courses and other educational activities organized by three teachers or sponsoring agency, and taken by persons beyond compulsory school age. Excluded is full-time attendance in a programme leading toward a high school diploma or an academic degree.
Examples include courses such as diet control, football, ballroom dancing and car maintenance.   Adult education as a process, however, also refers to methodologies of teaching appropriate for adults- the idea of a dragogy as distinct from pedagogy. Post-literacy programmes can benefit from a close association with adult education programmes as defined, but certainly all effective post-literacy involves adult methodologies as a process.
 FUNCTIONS OF POST-LITERACY
Some major functions of post-literacy programmes include the following:
a)                 TO CONSOLIDATE BASIC LITERACY SKILLS
A literate who has just completed a basic literacy course is not guaranteed retention of that skill. As for any other skill it could become diffuse and fade out in time unless it is systematically strengthened. A well-designed post-literacy programme may be able to save the situation. With material designed to suit the interests of the target group, post-literacy skill should be able to reinforce and consolidate basic literacy skills both cognitively and affectively.
b) TO MAKE LIFE-LONG LEARNING POSSIBLE
Post-literacy is a bridge towards autonomous learning. To reach the stage of autonomous learning means to be within the grasp of being a life-long learner.  Every country plans to become a learning society. Post-literacy programmes develop reading habits while at the same time enhance writing and numeracy skill. Without post-literacy programmes, or their equivalent, a learning society cannot materialize since the neo and semi-literates will not be motivated to go beyond basic literacy skills. Post-literacy programmes provide a second opportunity for the disadvantaged to become life-long learners. A keen student within a post-literacy programme has wide options from which to choose further education. Such a student can either enroll in an equivalency programme and so have the chance to enter the formal system again, or he or she can go to other types of continuing education such as vocationally-oriented income-generating programmes or others. In this sense, post-literacy programmes are liberating forces 'which provide the opportunity for participants to continue to learn throughout life.
c)  TO ENHANCE UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIETY AND COMMUNITY
Effective communication fosters understanding and promotes ties in the community. No person is an island. Humankind is gregarious by nature. Being gregarious we must have the skill to communicate to others and to listen effectively. Effective communication, including listening, requires certain skills. These skills can be acquired through training. Communication training programmes can be designed and made available to every interested individual.
Communication skills, therefore, should be a central part of any post-literacy programme. They should be carefully developed to enhance understanding of society and of the community.
d)  TO DIFFUSE TECHNOLOGY AND INCREASE VOCATIONAL SKILL
Post-literacy programmes can be an effective instrument to transfer required technologies to disadvantaged groups and to change a listless observer into a productive energetic member of the labor force. Reading and numeracy materials appropriately designed and properly worded maybe able to diffuse the required technology even into the remotest part of the country, instruction and developmental materials can also be modified to suit the peculiarities of any community and this can be done at relatively low administrative cost.
The most successful post-literacy programmes are associated with the work force. In many Member States, post-literacy activities are presented on-job in factories on farms, in retail stores, commercial institutions and so on. The advanced skills of reading, writing and numerically required for autonomous learning are developed in association with the functional   knowledge needed by participants to be maximally efficient as employees.
The significance of such an approach for the overall upgrading of technology and for improvement in individual and commercial                   efficiency is self-evident. This type of approach makes a major contribution to the economic well-being of individuals and of the nation as a whole.
e) TO MOTIVATES INSPIRE AND INSTILL HOPE TOWARDS IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE                                                                
Drop-cuts, disadvantaged groups and low-income earners have a feeling of hopelessness. For them the future is bleak. Their children are unlikely to have a meaningful place in society. Survival is by chance. Motivation to improve and the will to excel in life is marginal if not zero. For this «unproductive» and negative group, interesting and creative post-literacy materials can act as a 'stimulant. Creatively designed materials can Instill a fighting pioneering spirit. Feelings of helplessness and the sense of alienation can be overcome. Making such people realize that each and everyone has the same unharnessed potential and that everybody is capable of attaining the best in life, will motivate them to excel in whatever field they decide to undertake. This is possible because a post-literacy programme is an educational activity. Being educational it is an effective tool to affect changes in attitudes and behavior towards life. Post-literacy cultivates, develops, strengthens and stimulates the power of the target group.                            
f) TO FOSTER HAPPY FAMILY LIFE THROUGHEDUCATION                                          
The ultimate goal of development’s to improve the quality of life of every citizen in the country. To attain this goal requires co-operative effort by government and citizen. Every individual should be active in the development process. The fruit of development will only be harnessed by active participants. Bystanders will be swept aside by the tide of change.
Beside economic opportunity, development also provides other social benefits that will improve family life. Post-literacy programmes on consumerism, environment, health and ways of leisure can contribute towards happy living. Participating in post-literacy programmes sharpens the mind and makes participants alert for all openings and opportunities. Citizens become responsive and sensitive to the changing environment.                         
To be alert, adaptable and able to think positively makes possible the attainment of a fuller life in a demanding society. With higher income and a healthy mind and body the post-literacy leaner is able to improve the quality of life. The world becomes a happy place and there is a bright start towards greater happiness for the family as well as for the individual.
            Our country has set before itself the goal of ^"Education for all1by 2010: a good that aims at, of providing equity, access and quality education to reach the hitherto unreached population. Hence, continuing personal development throughout life in both formal and informal terms has become an essential requirement for all.
India has a very rich and long history of education: education which has been passed on from one generation to the next for thousands of years in various fields of knowledge. In most fields this transfer of knowledge has been through a tradition of oral learning with very little of it written down. People passed on skills along with the rigor of knowledge and human values. It was an integrated kind of an education.
The concept of continuing education or lifelong learning has been embedded in almost all traditional philosophies. Before the impact of the commercial and industrial civilization, most countries had a traditional society with a dominant role of the village community and a subsistence agrarian economy. Education in that society had to provide occupational skills, behavior codes, initiation into the value system and an understanding of the ultimate objective of life.
CONTINUING EDUCATION SCHEME
The structure of the continuing education programme, launched in 1995 as a fully funded centrally-sponsored scheme, will be retained and further strengthened and expanded in scope and content. A continuing education centre will be set up for a population of 2,000-2,500 so that it caters to the need of at least 500-1000 neoliterates. A nodal continuing education will be set up for a cluster of 10-15 continuing education centers.
CONCLUSION
            Post literacy is a part of the continuing education process. Post- literacy programmes are designed to strengthen the literacy skills so that the learner can follow meaningfully other opportunities offered by other continuing education prorgammes. Continuing education is an inevitable component of the strategy of human resource development and of the goal of creating a learning society. The aim of continuing education programmes is to consolidate the basic literacy skills of reading, numeracy and problem solving while simultaneously transforming the learner into an educated member of the community able to participate actively and productively in the nation’s development. But, in all developmental programmes, the most important problem faced by the planners and implements is the lack of effective and positive response of the weaker sections of the population not only to general development programmes but even to those which are exclusively intended for them. A failure to elicit a response from people is mainly due to lack of motivation and lack of awareness resulting from illiteracy and poverty.
This Assignment provides only very broad guidelines for the    training of continuing education personnel for post-literacy activities. In practice detailed strategies and training programmes would need to be designed and developed. Post-literacy programmes are only one form of continuing education and much of the training should focus on the general principles and practice of continuing education.
Finally it is also important to stress that as systematic approaches to continuing education are relatively new in the region; their successful implementation will depend on the emergence of a new cadre of well qualified competent educational personnel. Effective training is the key to this development


READ ALSO :INFORMAL EDUCATION ROLE OF DIFFERENT AGENCIES

                      IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRIC APPROACH IN EDUCATION

POST LITERACY AND CONTINUING EDUCATION



INTRODUCTION
How does an electric bulb light up? Why does it take such a short time cook “dal” in a pressure cooker? What is the area of your room? The answers to these and to other similar questions of everyday life cannot be given if the person is ignorant and not educated even in such simple things which one comes across every day. It is learning of information skills, and ideas that make a person knowledgeable and thus a useful member of the society. Education is change in behavior and improvement in abilities, when ignorance is changed into knowledge and awareness. The unskilled becomes skilled and his values, appreciations and outlook on life also change in a more positive way. Education meaning change in behavior and attitudes need not necessarily be through formal schooling; it can also be imparted in a non-formal setting. When education is imparted in a free atmosphere, without the rigidity of rules and regulations associated with school or college education it is termed as non formal education (NFE). Non Formal education imparts depth and meaning to that work of the recipient which he is already doing, or wants to do and thereby can make him more efficient and quite likely much more productive also. The non-formal approach to education can be described as the absence of a formal and captive way of teaching and evaluating. Non-formal education emphasizes learning. In the non-formal education; it is not necessary to put work into education because, most of the persons coming for non-formal education would already be working. Therefore; non-formal education is built around the work of the people who take up non-formal education. It enables the learner to increase his productivity in terms of output and also to improve the quality of the work in which he/she is already engaged. The large proportion of India’s population is poor; living in rural as well as urban areas. They live in pathetic conditions. Education in any form needs to be provided to them to improve their quality of life and to help them to participate productively in the national development. The formal education system; because of its rigid chronologically graded structure; excludes the poor from its advantages. The non-formal education, which is flexible and relevant to the lives of illiterates and the poor, needs to be encouraged. Formally educated persons can also continue their education for either self-development or higher professional advancement in a non-formal way.
Though, the basic concept of non-formal education is simple, educationalists responsible for its operation has developed academic objectives for this form of education also. The academicians have introduced such objectives not only to explain the concept of non-formal education, but also as a reminder of the dissimilarities in formal and non-formal education. Some of the academic objectives of the NFE are described below;
·                     To educate the dropouts from formal education
·                     To raise the extent of functional literacy
·                     To prepare individual for self-employment
·                     To retain adults for the changing requirements of jobs and family life.
·                     To complement formal education in a country of largely uneducated people
·                     To provide life-long education.
CENTERS FOR NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
In several Indian Universities, centers of adults and continuing educator have been established. These centers provide many forms of non-formal education; with varied contents. Besides, the university centers of non-formal education, the Industries, voluntary organizations, state governments, religious bodies, families and individuals also carry on a variety of NFE. Considering the extent of demands in the non-formal contents, the status of NFE is valid; desirable and is improving.
Even before 1995, when NFE was launched in a big way, several efforts were made by the government and other agencies to remove illiteracy. Some voluntary agencies, particularly some Christian missionary groups, made pioneering efforts to make children and adults illiterate, but they were not particularly successful because of the enormity of the problem and the severe economic and social constraints. Eradication of illiteracy was attempted through free and compulsory formal education.
Mass Literacy Movement, social education and other schemes were introduced, but all showed poor results. In the 1970’s NFE was widely suggested and illiteracy was the attacked through the non-formal approach. A major scheme was launched in 1975 to develop a large scale programme of NFE for under privileged children, youths and adults.  These programmes were meant to be related to the needs and the aspirations of the learners and were to be based on local environmental conditions. This was an attempt to reach the deprived and the disadvantaged outside the formal system of education. The government of India became interested in the advancement of literacy education after independence and some steps were taken to introduce adult education. But, the progress had been slow and tardy. With growing awareness that economic and social development are linked to literacy and education, the drive for literacy has received a fresh impact.
Post literacy is defined as programmes which aims are to maintain and enhance basic literacy, Numeracy and problem solving skills, giving individuals sufficient general basic work skills enabling them to function effectively in their societies.
POST-LITERACY PROCESSES
This idea generally refers to processes and activities especially developed for neo-literates, which are designed to help them become fully functionally literate and to be autonomous learners. The essential aims are to prevent regression to semi-literacy or worse and to develop those higher-level literacy skills which are essential for autonomy in learning. Such skills include context vocabulary building, increased general know ledge and its application, and the development of skills in integrating concepts into cognitive systems (schema). It is especially important to develop higher skills of critical reading and to foster skills in independent problem-solving.
Post-literacy programmes are designed for adults who want to strengthen their literacy skills. They may be immigrants, slum dwellers or elderly rural poor. In ail activities the objective is to sustain interest in learning and prevent regression. Literacy regression is common in any society and it is described as follows:
LITERACY REGRESSION
This term refers to the situation where learners, having reached a certain level or grade equivalent within a literacy programme, fall to proceed beyond that grade, lose skills and knowledge and revert to a lower grade of skill and functional knowledge; individuals who are semi-literate may revert to almost or complete illiteracy. Individuals who are almost at the neo-literate stage may revert to semi-literacy and so on. Among school pupils, it is well documerited that children who drop-out of formal education before reaching school grade V are likely to regress to almost complete or total illiteracy. Among adults, the boundary is less well-defined but premature withdrawal from adult literacy programmes inevitably leads to regression. The main problem among such people is motivation, which underlines the importance of including functional knowledge of direct and immediate relevance to the learners. Motivational aspects and the problem of regression have considerable implications for continuing education.
Post-literacy programme provide the point of «take-off» in a continuing education system. Without it, continuing education has little meaning to neo-literates or semiliterate rates. The aim of post literacy programmes is to consolidate the basic literacy skills of speaking, reading, writing, numeracy and problem solving while at same time overtly or covertly transforming the learners into an educated whole person, who is a productive socio-economic asset to the community- bale to participate actively and productively in a nations processes of Development.
In education many terms are used and many, such as the term post-1iteracy, have acquired a range of meanings. Some of these terms refer to concepts, some to «systems» some to «processes» and some to programmes. By concept is meant a general ideas or notion; and by process is meant a method of operation or a state of carrying on a procedure. By programme Is meant a structured series of learning events designed to develop concepts to foster the development of process skills and to achieve specified outcomes. Programmes may be available through the formal, non-formal or informal education channels.
a) Related Educational Concepts and their Expression in Programmes Relevant concepts to be considered in relation to the term post-literacy include the following:
i) LITERACY
This is generally to mean the ability to read, write and apply numeracy skills. Vagueness in the definition relates to some disagreement about what level or skill should be acquired before an individual can be said to be literate. Modern definitions tend to focus on competency and a literate person is perceived to be one who has sufficient reading, writing and numeracy skills to be able to continue to learn alone without the continuing guidance of a teacher.
Post-literacy programmes ensure that participants who have at one time reached such a level of competence, but have not adequately accepted the challenge to continue to learn, or even worse, may be in danger of regressing to partial literacy, in fact consolidate their literacy skills and advance to higher levels of competence.
ii) FUNCTIONAL LITERACY
There is a general consensus about the meaning of this term. Programmes concerned only with reading, writing and calculating for their own sake have little meaning. Functional literacy includes the development of these traditional literacy abilities, but it ensures that such development occurs in areas reflecting the socioeconomic and cultural needs of the learners. The emphasis is on directly usable knowledge. Reading, writing and numeracy skills develop with these goals sharply in focus.
Basic literacy programmes should build both technical literacy skills and functional knowledge. What people learn to read, write and calculate   becomes   equally   as   important   as   technical literacy skill, and the development of one aspect adds to the development of the other. All continuing education seen through this definition is functional.
iii) LEVEL ON GRADES OF LITERACY
The traditional way to define “level of literacy was in terms of functional measures and grade equivalents, using the formal educational system as a standard. There is little international agreement, however, about what should constitute the levels or stages of achievement in developing literacy skills and functional knowledge from illiteracy to the achievement of basic literacy. This is partly understandable because of the contrasted problems posed by different languages and cultures.
 iv) SEMI-LITERACY
This can be defined as a stage in literacy development, which may meet the technical requirements of the final grade of a literacy training programme but beyond which progress is inhibited. The failure to proceed further may be motivational, an absence of willingness to continue to learn without the guidance of a teacher; it may be because of some inherent ability problem or because of some gap or block in achievement. Semi-literacy is a major problem in many societies, including those of developed countries such as Australia, U.K. and U.S.A. Semi-literates are usually functionally illiterate. That is while .being basically literate in a technical sense, they cannot apply their literacy skills in everyday life. 
v) NEO-LITERACY
This term is well-known and fairly non- controversial. A neo literate is an individual who has completed a basic literacy training programs and has demonstrated the ability and willingness to continue to learn on his/her own using the skills and knowledge attained without the direct guidance of a literacy teacher. It is important to stress that technical achievement is not sufficient for an individual to be classed as a neo- literate. He or she needs to have the ability and willingness to continue as an independent learner. Post- literacy programmes are not only for semi-literates, but also for neo-literates who do not proceed beyond formal primary schooling or its equivalent.
vi)ADEQUATE FUNCTIONAL LITERACY
 By 'adequate' we could perhaps consider levels of competence and functional knowledge that facilitate an individual's personal development and his or her development as a member of society, and which help to maximize his or her contribution to the positive development of society, in other words, adequate functional literacy represents a staking off point from which an individual can grow and increasingly contributes to an improved quality of life.
A key aim of programmes of post-literacy is to ensure that participants become adequately functional literates. Adequate functional literacy is a pre-requisite for autonomous learning and the development of a learning society.
vii) AUTONOMOUS LEARNING
The idea of autonomous learning is a much more sophisticated concept than the Idea of simply being and willing to learn on your own, which is the concept used to define a neo-literate. The concept implies not just an autonomous learner but an autonomous person. At an autonomous stage of personal development, education is seen as leading to creativity, self-fulfillment and deeper values; it is seen as an on-going process. It is characterized by a learning style that probes for increasing complexity, complex patterns, toleration for ambiguity and development of broad views of the world and reflects a respect for objectivity.
This concept clearly implies that if a learning society to be effective, the opportunities provided by it must be accepted and utilized by its citizens. Only autonomous learners can take maximum advantage of such opportunities, so that evaluation of a learning society depends on the development of autonomous learning. This is a major challenge for continuing education, and especially for programmes of post-literacy with their aim of achieving not only learning autonomy, but the development of an autonomous person.
Three well-known terms of particular relevance to post-literacy are as follows:
i) LIFE-LONG LEARNING
In 1976, the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the following definition of life-long learning. The term life-long education and learning denotes an overall scheme aimed at restructuring the existing educational system and at developing the entire educational potential outside the education system; in such a scheme men and women are the agents of their own education. This definition contains three basic ideas:
a) The entire formal educational sub-system should be restructured to develop life-long learners;
b)The non-formal and informal education sub-sectors should be developed and utilized to the fullest extent;
c) The importance of autonomous learning is stressed.
According to this view, life-long learning is a process that involves purposive, directed learning not merely incidental learning. Post-literacy programmes are enabling forces to give participants the motivation, knowledge, skills and values required for them to undertake self-motivated lifelong learning.
ii) ADULT EDUCATION
Adult education programmes should be seen as a sub-set of lifelong learning. Adult education has been defined as engaging in courses and other educational activities organized by three teachers or sponsoring agency, and taken by persons beyond compulsory school age. Excluded is full-time attendance in a programme leading toward a high school diploma or an academic degree.
Examples include courses such as diet control, football, ballroom dancing and car maintenance.   Adult education as a process, however, also refers to methodologies of teaching appropriate for adults- the idea of a dragogy as distinct from pedagogy. Post-literacy programmes can benefit from a close association with adult education programmes as defined, but certainly all effective post-literacy involves adult methodologies as a process.
 FUNCTIONS OF POST-LITERACY
Some major functions of post-literacy programmes include the following:
a)                 TO CONSOLIDATE BASIC LITERACY SKILLS
A literate who has just completed a basic literacy course is not guaranteed retention of that skill. As for any other skill it could become diffuse and fade out in time unless it is systematically strengthened. A well-designed post-literacy programme may be able to save the situation. With material designed to suit the interests of the target group, post-literacy skill should be able to reinforce and consolidate basic literacy skills both cognitively and affectively.
b) TO MAKE LIFE-LONG LEARNING POSSIBLE
Post-literacy is a bridge towards autonomous learning. To reach the stage of autonomous learning means to be within the grasp of being a life-long learner.  Every country plans to become a learning society. Post-literacy programmes develop reading habits while at the same time enhance writing and numeracy skill. Without post-literacy programmes, or their equivalent, a learning society cannot materialize since the neo and semi-literates will not be motivated to go beyond basic literacy skills. Post-literacy programmes provide a second opportunity for the disadvantaged to become life-long learners. A keen student within a post-literacy programme has wide options from which to choose further education. Such a student can either enroll in an equivalency programme and so have the chance to enter the formal system again, or he or she can go to other types of continuing education such as vocationally-oriented income-generating programmes or others. In this sense, post-literacy programmes are liberating forces 'which provide the opportunity for participants to continue to learn throughout life.
c)  TO ENHANCE UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIETY AND COMMUNITY
Effective communication fosters understanding and promotes ties in the community. No person is an island. Humankind is gregarious by nature. Being gregarious we must have the skill to communicate to others and to listen effectively. Effective communication, including listening, requires certain skills. These skills can be acquired through training. Communication training programmes can be designed and made available to every interested individual.
Communication skills, therefore, should be a central part of any post-literacy programme. They should be carefully developed to enhance understanding of society and of the community.
d)  TO DIFFUSE TECHNOLOGY AND INCREASE VOCATIONAL SKILL
Post-literacy programmes can be an effective instrument to transfer required technologies to disadvantaged groups and to change a listless observer into a productive energetic member of the labor force. Reading and numeracy materials appropriately designed and properly worded maybe able to diffuse the required technology even into the remotest part of the country, instruction and developmental materials can also be modified to suit the peculiarities of any community and this can be done at relatively low administrative cost.
The most successful post-literacy programmes are associated with the work force. In many Member States, post-literacy activities are presented on-job in factories on farms, in retail stores, commercial institutions and so on. The advanced skills of reading, writing and numerically required for autonomous learning are developed in association with the functional   knowledge needed by participants to be maximally efficient as employees.
The significance of such an approach for the overall upgrading of technology and for improvement in individual and commercial                   efficiency is self-evident. This type of approach makes a major contribution to the economic well-being of individuals and of the nation as a whole.
e) TO MOTIVATES INSPIRE AND INSTILL HOPE TOWARDS IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE                                                                
Drop-cuts, disadvantaged groups and low-income earners have a feeling of hopelessness. For them the future is bleak. Their children are unlikely to have a meaningful place in society. Survival is by chance. Motivation to improve and the will to excel in life is marginal if not zero. For this «unproductive» and negative group, interesting and creative post-literacy materials can act as a 'stimulant. Creatively designed materials can Instill a fighting pioneering spirit. Feelings of helplessness and the sense of alienation can be overcome. Making such people realize that each and everyone has the same unharnessed potential and that everybody is capable of attaining the best in life, will motivate them to excel in whatever field they decide to undertake. This is possible because a post-literacy programme is an educational activity. Being educational it is an effective tool to affect changes in attitudes and behavior towards life. Post-literacy cultivates, develops, strengthens and stimulates the power of the target group.                            
f) TO FOSTER HAPPY FAMILY LIFE THROUGHEDUCATION                                          
The ultimate goal of development’s to improve the quality of life of every citizen in the country. To attain this goal requires co-operative effort by government and citizen. Every individual should be active in the development process. The fruit of development will only be harnessed by active participants. Bystanders will be swept aside by the tide of change.
Beside economic opportunity, development also provides other social benefits that will improve family life. Post-literacy programmes on consumerism, environment, health and ways of leisure can contribute towards happy living. Participating in post-literacy programmes sharpens the mind and makes participants alert for all openings and opportunities. Citizens become responsive and sensitive to the changing environment.                         
To be alert, adaptable and able to think positively makes possible the attainment of a fuller life in a demanding society. With higher income and a healthy mind and body the post-literacy leaner is able to improve the quality of life. The world becomes a happy place and there is a bright start towards greater happiness for the family as well as for the individual.
            Our country has set before itself the goal of ^"Education for all1by 2010: a good that aims at, of providing equity, access and quality education to reach the hitherto unreached population. Hence, continuing personal development throughout life in both formal and informal terms has become an essential requirement for all.
India has a very rich and long history of education: education which has been passed on from one generation to the next for thousands of years in various fields of knowledge. In most fields this transfer of knowledge has been through a tradition of oral learning with very little of it written down. People passed on skills along with the rigor of knowledge and human values. It was an integrated kind of an education.
The concept of continuing education or lifelong learning has been embedded in almost all traditional philosophies. Before the impact of the commercial and industrial civilization, most countries had a traditional society with a dominant role of the village community and a subsistence agrarian economy. Education in that society had to provide occupational skills, behavior codes, initiation into the value system and an understanding of the ultimate objective of life.
CONTINUING EDUCATION SCHEME
The structure of the continuing education programme, launched in 1995 as a fully funded centrally-sponsored scheme, will be retained and further strengthened and expanded in scope and content. A continuing education centre will be set up for a population of 2,000-2,500 so that it caters to the need of at least 500-1000 neoliterates. A nodal continuing education will be set up for a cluster of 10-15 continuing education centers.
CONCLUSION
            Post literacy is a part of the continuing education process. Post- literacy programmes are designed to strengthen the literacy skills so that the learner can follow meaningfully other opportunities offered by other continuing education prorgammes. Continuing education is an inevitable component of the strategy of human resource development and of the goal of creating a learning society. The aim of continuing education programmes is to consolidate the basic literacy skills of reading, numeracy and problem solving while simultaneously transforming the learner into an educated member of the community able to participate actively and productively in the nation’s development. But, in all developmental programmes, the most important problem faced by the planners and implements is the lack of effective and positive response of the weaker sections of the population not only to general development programmes but even to those which are exclusively intended for them. A failure to elicit a response from people is mainly due to lack of motivation and lack of awareness resulting from illiteracy and poverty.
This Assignment provides only very broad guidelines for the    training of continuing education personnel for post-literacy activities. In practice detailed strategies and training programmes would need to be designed and developed. Post-literacy programmes are only one form of continuing education and much of the training should focus on the general principles and practice of continuing education.
Finally it is also important to stress that as systematic approaches to continuing education are relatively new in the region; their successful implementation will depend on the emergence of a new cadre of well qualified competent educational personnel. Effective training is the key to this development


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