Teacher Education Program

Teacher Education Program

Keywords; General objectives; Characteristics of Curriculum Framework; Teacher Education for Primary Stage, Secondary and college Stage; Scope of Research in Teacher Education; Academic versus professional education.
Teacher education is a vital component of the educational system of Pakistan. It is well connected with society and the culture of the nation. The goals of the nation and the socio-economic problems and the growth of knowledge. These are the components that effect the education system and bring changes in the operating of education system and provide the perspective within which teacher education programmes need to be viewed
When Pakistan attained freedom, the then existing educational system was accepted for time being, for the purpose of the continuity of education system  with the aim to replace it with time and bring appropriate changes when needed. 
During the last five decades certain efforts have been made to indigenize the system. The gaps, however, are still wide and visible. The imperatives for building the bridges may be as follows:
To build a national system of teacher education based on Pakistani cultural and philosophy, its unity and diversity synchronizing with change and continuity.
To facilitate the realization of the constitutional goals and emergence of the new social order.
To prepare professionally competent teachers to perform their roles effectively as per needs of the society.
To upgrade the standard of teacher education, enhance the professional and social status of teachers and develop amongst them a sense of commitment.
These are the few major concerns which call for an immediate action. A comprehensive, dynamic and responsive system of teacher education is needed to evolve the current education system to a better position
General objectives
The general objectives of teacher education derived from the perspective, concerns and issues of education, teacher education and the perceived profile of the teacher, could include the following:
To promote capabilities for inculcating national values and goals as enshrined in the Constitution of Pakistan.
§  To enable teachers to act as agents of modernization and social change.
§  To sensitize teachers towards the promotion of social consistency, international understanding and protection of human rights and rights of the child.
§  To transform student-teachers into competent and committed professionals willing to perform the identified tasks.
§  To develop competencies and skills needed for becoming an effective teacher.
§  To sensitize teachers and teacher educators about emerging issues, such as environment, ecology, population, gender equality, legal literacy, etc...
§  To empower teachers to cultivate rational thinking and scientific temper among students.
§  To develop critical awareness about the social realities.
§  To develop managerial and organizational skills.

Characteristics of Curriculum Framework
The perceived characteristics of the foresee curriculum framework would include the following:
·         Reflects on the Pakistani heritage, acts as an instrument in the realization of national goals and fulfills aspirations of people.
·         Responds to the latest developments in the field of education...
·         Establishes integration of theory and practice of education.
·         Provides multiple educational experiences to teachers.
·         Enables teachers to experiment with new ideas.
·         Sets achievable goals for various stages of teacher education.
·         provides for use of communication technology

Teacher Education for Primary Stage
Specific Objectives: The formulation of curriculum framework for this stage (class I to V) has been guided by general and specific objectives of teacher education. The specific objectives of primary teacher education may include the following:
·         To develop understanding of the psychological and sociological foundations relevant to the primary stage.
·         To enable teachers to manage appropriate resources for organizing learning experiences of children.
·         To acquaint them with methods and techniques of caring for children with special needs.
·         To enable them to acquire necessary skills so as to develop curiosity, imagination and creativity.
·         To develop in them the capacity to understand and analyse the social and emotional problems.
·         to develop communication skills
·         To enable them to understand implications of research for teaching-learning and undertake action research and use innovative practices.
·         to enable them to organise games, sports, physical activities and other co-curricular activities
The teacher needs to be empowered through training inputs to gain greater insights into the complexities of the society and the historical perspective of the developmental process.
Theoretical component is essential for understanding the learner, community and the society. The inclusion of Courses on teaching Psychology for understanding of learner and the members of the community. In the proposed training programmes, the prospective teachers would be imparted training in a manner that theory and practice are integrated
Teacher Education for Elementary Stage
Specific Objectives: The specific objectives relevant to the stage may include the following:
·         To develop understanding of the psychological and sociological principles relevant to elementary stage of education.
·         To enable teachers to select, prepare and use appropriate resources for organising learning experiences.
·         to acquaint them with methods and materials of teaching children with special needs
·         To develop among them the capacity to solve the social and emotional problems of children.
·         To enable them acquire necessary skills so as to develop curiosity, imagination and self-confidence among children.
·         to develop communication skills
·         To enable them to mobilize and utilize community resources as educational inputs.
·         to enable them to organize supplementary educational activities
·         to undertake action research projects
·         to enable them to establish mutually supportive linkages with the community
·         To enable them to organize games, sports, physical activities and other co-curricular activities.

The course on Emerging Pakistani Society will enable the prospective teachers to understand the demands of the society. Similarly, proposed course on 'Elementary Education in Pakistan - status, problems and issues' will promote the capacity to examine if these expectations can really be met. The course on Psychology of Teaching and Learning will teach them how to formulate their teaching strategies to promote learning among children.

Teacher Education for Secondary Stage
For teaching at secondary stage, the teacher qualification must be one year B.Ed. after B.A or B.S.E
Teacher education programme at this stage, like at all other stages, will include the theory, practice teaching in schools, and practical work in the light of contexts, concerns, profile of teachers and general and specific objectives.

Specific Objectives: The specific objectives at this stage may include the following:
·         To enable the prospective teachers to understand the nature, purpose and philosophy of secondary education.
·         To develop among teachers an understanding of the psychology of their pupils.
·         To enable them to understand the process of socialization.
·         To equip them acquire competencies relevant to stage specific pedagogy, curriculum development, its transaction and evaluation.
·         To enable them to make pedagogical analysis of the subjects they are to teach at the secondary stage.
·         To develop skills for guidance and counseling.
·         To enable them to foster creative thinking among pupils for reconstruction of knowledge.
·         Aware them about factors and forces affecting educational system and class room situation.
·         Createawareness in teachers about the educational needs of special groups of pupils.
·         To enable them to utilize community resources as educational inputs.
·         To develop communication skills and use the modern information technology.
·         To develop aesthetic sensibilities.
·         to acquaint them with research in education including action research
 A professionally trained teacher is expected to identify the strengths and weaknesses of secondary education in Pakistan and after having gained insights into the status, problems and issues concerning education at this stage, develop a mental make-up of evaluating the system and utilizing the same for promoting excellence in education.
The message of educational technology has to reach the classrooms in the form of its application. Prospective teacher has to be so equipped in the course of training as to enable him to think of using appropriate educational technology for improving the quality of instruction and for obtaining optimum results in terms of the students' growth.
                                                Function of the College of Education
The College of Education prepares professionals and scholars who contribute to the advancement of education, health, and human development.

Ø  Develop research culture
Ø  Improve professional teaching and learning for schools
Ø  Develop leaders for community colleges
Ø  provide educational professional
Ø  will serve as administrators, faculty, and scholars in higher education institutions, governmental agencies, policy or research centers
Ø  prepare counseling professionals for schools
Ø  prepare family and child development experts
Academic versus professional education
In general, the difference between academic and professional programmes lays in the content, working methods, independence, freedom of choice, course transferability and graduation perspectives. Similarities can be found in atmosphere and attitude.
Differences:  Compared to a higher professional education in an academic education you:
Ø  Become more intensively acquainted with existing theories and academic literature.
Ø  Learn to observe from a wider context.
Ø  Receive extensive training in research methods and techniques and carry out individual research.
Ø  Have to develop a critical attitude to theories and perspectives.

Academic study
Relating to studies that are liberal or classical rather than technical or vocational.Theoretical or speculative without a practical purpose or intention
An academic degree is a college or university diploma, often associated with a title and sometimes associated with an academic position, which is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly Endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree.

College of Education
The College of Education prepares teachers, administrators, counselors, researchers and analysts for careers in education from primary to postsecondary. It emphasizes global cultural awareness and the use of technology for enhanced learning.
Curriculum and Instruction & Counselor Education
Elementary Education
Leadership, Policy and Adult and Higher Education
Professional Studies
The focused mission of the College of Education and Professional Studies is to prepare creative, reflective, and ethical practitioners who value diversity, promote social justice, and utilize empirical evidence to inform their practice.
"Professional studies" is a term used to classify academic programs which are applied or interdisciplinary in focus. The term can also be used for non-academic training for a specific profession.
Professional studies usually combine theory and practice-based professional learning, focusing on a body of knowledge that is more strictly delineated and canonical than non-professional studies. Students are trained to ensure expected standards and adequate service delivery in the best practice of a profession
Professional studies may lead to academic degrees such as the Bachelor of Professional Studies (BPS),
Master of Professional Studies (MPS), or
A BPS is similar to a Bachelor of General Studies with a greater emphasis on practical and technical training
What role should the College of Education play in teachers' continuing professional development? This is a timely question, and an important one. When we think of teacher education as part of our mission, we usually focus on pre-service programs.
The college of Education provides teachers with practical tools and approaches to meet current challenges in education
Teachers’ professional education is viewed as one of the most important factors in improving students’ learning. Keeping this in view many developed and less developed countries pay significant attention to improve the practices of teacher education. In order to develop capable teachers they make conscious efforts to establish and maintain quality teacher education institutions.

Scope of Research in Teacher Education
The research area of teacher education is very vast. Some of the suggested areas are listed as follows:
Student teachers and school teachers;
2. Teacher educators;
3. Teacher education courses;
4. Management of teacher education;
5. Evaluation of performance of student teachers;
6. Admission procedures;
7. Laboratory/pre-practice teaching preparation;
8. Innovations;
9. Practice teaching, Internship and field experiences;
10. Supervision;
11. Laboratory / demonstration / professional development schools;
12. Linkage of Teacher education institutions and their linkage with others;
 13. In-service and induction programmes;
14. Gender issues; and
15. Technology and teacher educ
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