(Presentation outlines)

Keywords:What is Curriculum?; Old concept of Curriculum; The Traditional concept of Curriculum; Static view point Curriculum; Dynamic view pointCurriculum ;Modern Curriculum; Syllabus vs  Curriculum Content Outline of Curriculum; Planned Experiences; Scope and importance of Curriculum Functions of Curriculum;Importance of Curriculum; Characteristics of Curriculum;   Life centered Curriculum

What is Curriculum?
                    A document or plan that exists in a   school or school system that defines the work of teachers, at least to the extent of identifying the content to be taught to students and the method to be used in the process. (English, 2000)
The word Curriculum is taken from the Latin word which mean race or race-course.
Oxford Dictionary defined it as a course of study
“Curriculum is a disciplining technology that directs how the individual is to act, feel, talk, and ‘see’ the world and the ‘self.’  As such, curriculum is a form of social regulation.”
The Traditional concept;
“It is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn”
Static view point
Initially  the curriculum was  consider the course of study which gives importance only to text book teaching in educational institutions, the objective was to help students to memorize the content  of the subject.
Dynamic view point
After 19th century the old concept of the curriculum was replaced, it include now all the activities which are practiced inside or outside school for the well being of the students. It is the totality of learning; classroom
Experiences, lab work, play ground and interaction with the community
Definitions of Curriculum
  1. Experiences children have under the guidance of teachers.
  2. Curriculum encompasses all learning opportunities provided by school.
  3. Curriculum is a plan for all experiences which the learner encounters in school.
Modern Curriculum
The modern curriculum consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. It is composed of the actual experiences and activities of learners inside or outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher and for which the school accepts responsibility.
Some authors define curriculum as
 “The total effort of the school to bring about desired out-comes in school and out-of-school situations”
Concepts of Curriculum               
The concept of Curriculum is dynamic as the changes that occur in society. In its narrow sense, curriculum is viewed merely as a listing of subject to be taught in school. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well.     ( Purita P. Bilbo, Ed.D)
A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field.
A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify him for a trade or profession.
Common Concepts of Curriculum
Syllabus Content Outline
Standards Textbooks
Course of study
Planned Experiences
Scope and importance of Curriculum
  1. the coverage of the area or subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant.
  2. The range of one's perceptions, thoughts, or actions    “He hasn't the scope to understand this concept."? .
  3. The area covered by a given activity or subject
So here the word scope means the range of curriculum and how much area it covers.
Here is the various aspect of the curriculum process;
  1. Substantive (real or actual)
  2. Technical
  3. social 
The important aspect of the substantive is related to goals, aims and objectives and the technical aspect refers to the skill development , methods and subject matter.
The social side is the need and involvement of the society in the process.

1.        Functions of Curriculum
The main objective of the curriculum is  the development of the child physical, intellectual, emotional and personality development.

Development of individual
Each student learns with his own pace and each individual has his own abilities and potentialities. Some students Learn with one method while other learn with other. So it is the function of curriculum to help the student by providing such experience which encounters the need of all students 
Curriculum a play very important role in the mental, social, emotional, moral and physical development of the student.
Produce good Citizens
Good curriculum gives good citizens to a  country, it play very important role in the character building and providing knowledge about what is wrong and what is right
Patterns of Curriculum
What is the pattern of the curriculum, it is the most important aspect of the curriculum. It is the mean and plan of implementation curriculum;
Ø  Subject based curriculum
Ø  Activity based curriculum
Ø  Learner centered curriculum
Ø  Teacher centered curriculum
Develop Basic skills
Develop the basic skills of the students by implementing a good curriculum;
Reading, writing, understanding and speaking
Culture preservation and transmission
The main aim of education is to preserve the culture, values and transfer it to next generation. The Curriculum helps in the process. It inculcates Islamic values, improve mental and physical health of the student, and prepare people for the new era
Foundation of curriculum
The forces that shape and influence the curriculum;
*             Philosophical foundation
*             Psychological foundation
*    Sociological foundation
Importance of Curriculum
1.            The success of a nation is hidden in the formulation of effective curriculum which helps to develop the inner potentialities of an individual
  1. Curriculum provide a plan and structure to education process inside and outside of school
3.            Curriculum is the reflection of the society, what society needs and want, how they want to mold the individual capacities
  1. Curriculum guides the society to improvement and brings enrichment.
  2. Curriculum Gives concrete  shape to  educational policies of a nation
6. Curriculum helps in the preservation, improvement and transfer of culture to the next generation
7. Curriculum helps in producing good and broad minded citizens.
8. It helps in the development of responsible citizen
9. Curriculum fulfill the future demands of the country
10. Curriculum gives concrete shape to national requirement..
11. Curriculum helps in the harmonious development of the personality of the people of the society.
12.   Curriculum Help in the development of basic skill in the people of the society and prepare them for the life
13. Curriculum Gives knowledge
14.          Curriculum  helps in the formulation of good attitudes and guides them in the development of desired attitudes in the young ones
Characteristics of Curriculum
Ø  Flexibility
Ø  Integrated & continuous
Ø  Balance
Ø  Scope
Ø  Curriculum consisted religious and moral values.
Ø  Considering individual conflicts in curriculum
Ø  Life centered Curriculum
Ø  Flexibility
The Curriculum has administrative flexibility.
             A good curriculum must be ready to     incorporate new changes whenever necessary.
            The curriculum is open to revision and development, to meet the demands of globalization and the digital age.
Integrated & continuous
There should be continuity and integration in curriculum development process for every class.
The curriculum should be balanced in all aspects.
   Cover all aspects;
Ø  vocational,
Ø  educational area,
Ø  social,
Ø  technical and moral 
Ø  curriculum consist religious and moral values.
Ø  Cover religious and moral values of a nation
Ø  Considering individual conflicts in curriculum.
Ø  Curriculum should have the ability to engage /support all kinds of students. It should be based on individual differences.
Ø  Life centered Curriculum
  1. The Curriculum is continuously evolving.
       It evolved from one period to another, and to the present time.
       For a curriculum to be effective, it must have continuous monitoring and evaluation.
       Curriculum must adapt its educational activities and services to meet the needs of  modern and dynamic community.
2 . The Curriculum is based on the needs of the people.
       a good curriculum reflects the needs of the individual and the society as a whole.
       The curriculum is in proper shape in order to meet the challenges of times and make education more responsive to the clientele it serves.
3. The Curriculum is democratically conceived.
       A good curriculum is developed through the efforts of a group of individuals from different sectors in the society who are knowledgeable about the interests, needs and resources of the learner and the society as a whole.
       The curriculum is the product of many minds and energies.
4. The Curriculum is the result of a long-term effort.
       a good curriculum is a product of long and tedious process.
       It takes a long period of time in the planning, management, evaluation and development of a good curriculum.
5. The Curriculum is a compound of details.
       A good curriculum provides the proper instructional equipment and meeting places that are often most conducive to learning.
       It includes the student-teacher relationship, guidance and counseling program, health services, school and community projects, library and laboratories, and other school-related work experiences.
6. The Curriculum provides for the logical sequence of subject matter.
       Learning is developmental.
       Classes and activities should be planned.
       A good curriculum provides continuity of experiences.
7. The Curriculum balance and cooperates with other programs of the community.
       The curriculum is responsive to the needs of the community.
       The school offers its assistance in the improvement and realization of ongoing programs of the community.
       There is cooperative effort between the school and the community towards greater productivity.
8. The Curriculum has educational quality.
       Quality education comes through the situation of the individuals intellectual and creative capacities for social welfare and development.
       The curriculum helps the learner to become the best that he can possibly be.
       The curriculum support system is secured to add to existing sources for its efficient and effective implementation.
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