Plan for Effective Supervision at Secondary School Level

Plan for Effective Supervision at Secondary School Level
Sultan Muhammad


Definition of Supervision:
1.      Oversee activity:  to watch over an activity or task being carried out by somebody and ensure that it is performed correctly. (MS Encarta)

2.       Oversee people: to be in charge of a group of people engaged in an activity or task and keep order or ensure that they perform it correctly. (MS Encarta)

Background and Justification

A successful school is the indication of a good leader, a leader who supervises the school like delicate flower so it can spread its fragrance everywhere. Good education is result of good supervision upon the side of a good supervisor. Good Education is an essential part of every country, it is like a lifeline; their survival depends on it. As such, their focus on education is at the highest.     
In under-developed, even developing countries, people mostly seek to improve their livelihood through good education. But due to shortage of skilful teachers and supervisor the education systems is not up to the standard for which people are looking for, some high standard private schools  are there but majority of the people cant offered to send their children to those school due to low income. They send their children to public school, which are not performing well up to their expectations. Therefore, it is necessary to take some drastic measure to improve the education system of Pakistan, in which the first step is better supervision. For this purpose, we need a model, to replicate the success stories and lessons learned elsewhere in the country. Identify gaps in their work for further improvement. In order to do it all, this research study is proposed.
1)       Explore various methods of supervision in school. 
2)       Identify gaps and suggest measures for further improvement in supervision of school education
3)       To motivate people to actively take part in the supervision process of a school.
4)       prepare an effective plan for supervision of a Secondary schoo 

            To improve supervision some questions need to be answered:
1)       Why need for school supervision?
2)       What are the contributions of community members in the process of supervision?
3)       Where we need supervision in school environmental?
4)       Which departments need to be included for the improvement of Supervision in schools?

Why the need of supervision? In school there are teachers and students. Both are essential part of learning process. But it is also fact that, they need the support of a team to look after the teaching learning process and suggest measure for further improvement. This support team provides better environment and necessary tools for teaching learning process. Support team some time in the shape of headmaster or principal and some time education officers who visit school from time to time, to supervise the school and identified the problems which the school face.

What should a supervisor do for effective supervision in a secondary school situation? Where is the need of supervision in school it is also an important question. Curriculum, discipline, school plant, teacher student behavior etc
Education planning
            The supervisor should select and set targets for the whole year day by day for him self and teachers, what to teach and when to teach a complete annual planner. Projected targets and a comprehensive evaluation plan to evaluate the student’s progress.

            Discipline in school is the most important factor in the process of supervision of school which is full of students. Discipline in students as well as in teachers because teachers are model for students if they do not follow the rules and regulation then how they can expect from students. Make sure that teacher and students come on time to school and class, maintain time table on daily bases.     
The supervisor will involve the community in the supervision process of the school. The supervisor will invite the community members and parents of the students from time to time in school events e.g. dram, games and award ceremony. Teacher parents day to discuss student’s progress report and any other problem which a teacher face regarding student.

Continuing staff development
Arrange classes for staff development purpose and arrange visits to model schools for developing their teaching skills. Establish communication with the teachers of other schools. Send them for refresher courses.

Opportunities for staff
Create Opportunities for the staff and give them the opportunity to get further education. Help them with their education process.

Arrange seminars in school for teacher and students from time to time. Invite speakers whom students love, so they could develop a model for their self and follow that model. Invite good teacher as speaker that teacher learn from them.

Provision of materials
Availability of materials to teachers for teaching learning process, e.g. books, news papers, audio visual aids. Keep the library up to date and add new book in library from time to time. Library should be open all the time so teacher and student could set their and read news paper and books.    

Development of leadership in other
Develop the skills of teachers and transform them to better leaders, so they took initiatives by them selves for the improvement of the school and students.

For better supervision of the school, the head need to give some authority to teachers and involve them in the supervision of school so they could feel them selves the part of administration. Share responsibilities will make them the part of supervision process

            Reward and punishment
            For better supervision the supervisor should always had stick in one hand and reward in other. When staff new the consequences of their actions, they would try to perform their duties with honesty.

            Record keeping is the essential part of supervision. Keep the record of the administration department as well as the record of day to day activities. Keep the record of student progress report specially those who are weak in the class according to teacher evaluation process. Try to identify their weaknesses and rectify them.

Recommended Books

1.         Supervision in education: a differentiated approach with legal perspectives

Bernadette Marczely
Aspen Publishers, 2001 - Education - 270 pages

2.         The Soul of Supervision: Integrating Practice and Theory

Margaret Benefiel
Church Publishing, Inc., 2010 - Business & Economics - 192 pages

3.         Supervision in colleges and universities

Daniel James Rowley, Herbert Sherman
University Press of America, 2004 - Education - 97 pages

4.         Supervision in education: problems and practices

Front Cover            Daniel Tanner, Laurel N. Tanner
Macmillan, 1987 - Education - 565 pages

5.         Rethinking Teacher Supervision and Evaluation: How to Work Smart, Build Collaboration, and Close the Achievement Gap

            Kim Marshall
John Wiley and Sons, 2009 - Education - 257 pages

6.         Supervision that improves teaching:strategies and techniques

Susan Sullivan, Jeffrey Glanz
Corwin Press, 2005 - Education - 212 pages

7.         Supervision and the creative teacher

National Education Association of the United States. Dept. of Supervisors and Directors of Instruction Bureau of publications, Teachers college, Columbia university, 1932 -  Education - 348 pages

8.         Supervision for better schools

John Thomas Lovell, Kimball Wiles
Prentice-Hall, 1983 - Education - 321 pages

9.         Commen Sense in School Supervision

Charles A Wagner
BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009 - History - 208 pages

10.       School Supervision

Josiah Little Pickard
BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009 - 192 pages



McNerney, C. T. (1951). Educational supervision . New York: McGraw-Hill. (Original work published 1951)

Vashist, S. (1994). School Supervision. New delhi: Anmol publication pvt ltd.

Wiles, K. (1967). Supervision for better schools (3d ed.). Englewood cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

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