Growth and Development

by Sultan Muhammad


Growth and development is the over all development of a person, physical and mental development. The process of development goes altogether in all fields, cognitive development, physical development, emotional development. When a child born it goes through different stages;

  • Childhood stage
  • Boyhood stage
  • Mature puberty
  • Adulthood stage

During all these stages child complete it growth and development and become adult.


From the very start of human life, changes start take place in human body. This physical change is known as growth. Growth is also quantitative in measure and could be seen in structural and physiological changes in the body.

The growth process is slow in nature and organized. These changes could be seen in the shape of height and weight, this phenomenon of changes in human body is called growth.


With the growth process, there is another process which is called development, take place in the human body. This process is little different from growth process. With the time when changes take place in human body, human start shown other body functions, for example moving, crawl and after some time learn to stand and walk.

“Development means a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly, predictable pattern as a result of maturation and experience” E.B. Hurlock.

The change in body functions, due to the changes in structure of body parts is called development.

Different parts of growth and development

1. Physical growth and development

2. Social growth and development

3. Emotional development

4. Mental development

1. Physical growth and development

It includes changes in weight and height and growth in different body parts, with the passage of time, it mainly depend on the diet and environmental condition as well as the home condition. A rich diet will help in better growth and development of a child.

2. Social growth and development

Social growth and development is very necessary because it helps the child to understand various norms and values and became a better person of the society.

3. Emotional development

Child by birth has different natural emotions and instincts and with the time some instincts and emotions disappear while with the time some new emotion and instincts manifest, according to psychologist, emotion are related to physical changes.

Environment also plays a vital role in the development of these emotions. And with the time it became the part of human personality.

4. Mental development

In the early stages the ideas of children are vague and unclear, with time gradually, these refined. It help the child to use his senses and develop the capacity to think and understand. It impel the growth in his metal ability, by the time when child reaches puberty his intelligence, level can be defined.

The metal growth of a child starts from the very first day of his life when he born and effect his whole life.

Stages of social, physical, emotional and mental development

  1. childhood (till 4 years)
  2. boyhood stage ( five to ten years)
  3. pre mature puberty ( to 15 year)
  4. adulthood stage (after 15 year)

Childhood stage

Early childhood is the time of a tremendous growth and development across all areas. The new born baby grows into a young person who can take care of his body with the help of other. It is the primary stage in which different skill development take place. This stage stays up to the age of four to five years and According to some expert up to eight year.

Physical development childhood stage

At the time of birth male child is born up to 7,5 pound and girl up to 7 pound. The height is above 52 centimetres. With the passage of time development is quite fast. Physically, in this stage up to three years a child doubles in weight and height. Children totally depend on others in this stage

Social Development in this stage

In this stage, the children like parents, siblings, home and toys. The child understands itself but is dependent on others.

Emotional development

At this stage child had inherent emotions. This stage is considered very important for the personality’s development. It is the foundation for the child building personality.

Mental Development

Each child has inherent intelligence; they feel happy when they satisfy. They do every thing what give them happiness regardless the consequences of their actions

Boyhood stage (up to 10 years)

This period is from five to ten years,

Physical development, in the boyhood stage physical development is comparatively slower than childhood stage. Child grows at the rate of two inches per anum, especially the child grows in height in this stage.

Social development

In this stage children love to play games, children learn to adjust it self in environment and make new friends, they feel happy to participate in activities in home with parents

Emotional development

This stage is also very important in the life of a child, In this stage children are very emotional and keen to learn. In this stage they understand their relation with the other members of the society and relatives.

Mental development

At this stage up to the age six years and according to some psychologist at the age of eight years the brain complete and all five senses are developed and used. At this stage the child should be given special attention and involved him in the learning base activities to develop his brain.

5. Adolescence stage (10 to 15 year)

Adolescence is a Latin word, which derived from the word “adolescere” meaning to grow up, or grow to maturity. This period is from 10 to 15 years of age, it is a period of life between the age of child hood and adulthood

The adolescent stage is another period of accelerated growth. Individual can grow up to four inches, and increase in weight up to ten pounds per year. At the end of this stage, individuals may gain seven to nine inches in height and forty to forty five pounds in weight.

Physical Growth and Development

This stage is slow until the age of 12 years, after 12 years it speed up till the age of 15 years, in this stage individual increase in height and weight, girls growth in reproductive organs and voice became mature and start of periods, boys grow moustaches

Social development

Increase in friends in this stage, the child is attractive to opposite sex and like to here stories of heroes and fore fathers

Emotional development

This stage bring strange feeling to them, many new emotion manifested and children became very touchy, at this stage they like to talk to opposite sex, sexual desires in this stage are very power full. In this stage careful guidance of an adult is required, to help them in understanding and controlling these emotions

Mental development

Child is very suspicious about every one, he want to know about every thing, weakness in self confidence and like to talks to adults and behave like adults and very moody. At this stage child develop self willpower and determination

Adulthood age (after 15 years)

This stage begins after the age of fifteen years, this is the stage where the child crosses the stage of childhood to manhood, and became an adult. Enter in to practical life and begin facing the challenges of life, get married and starts his own family.

Physical development

Physical development is very slow at this stage and stop after a certain age, and after that it decline with the passage of time

Social Development

Get married, have children of their own and take responsibilities and become a active member of the society

Emotional development

Lack of coordination between mental and physical maturity in this stage

Mental development

Intelligence until the age of 6 to 8 years and maintain standard after that, after the age of 60 years, the stage of decline come in intelligence.

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